The term Information System (IS) is defined differently depending on the contexts in which it is used. First, it refers to the set of infrastructure, hardware, trained personnel, and software used in facilitating planning, decision-making, coordination, and control in a given organization. Second, IS refers to the set of computer applications or systems used in the gathering, creation, storage, processing, as well as distribution, of information. Third, IS refers to particular integrated information elements or sets. Lastly, the term is commonly used in referring to sets of human and technical resources that provide for the distribution, computing, and storage of entrepreneurial information (Olson & Kesharwani, 2010; Oz, 2009).
There are different types of IS. Executive Support IS (ESIS) are IS used in supporting senior managements in formulating strategic decisions. ESIS collect, appraise, and summarize critical external, as well as internal sets of information within business settings. Management IS (MIS) are elementarily related to business information’s internal sources. MIS pick up data from TPIS (Transaction Processing Information Systems) and synthesize it into structured management reports (Olson & Kesharwani, 2010; Oz, 2009). Notably, the Management Reporting System (MRS) is a common MIS. MRS gets data streaming from TPIS and produce reports from it. MRS is commonly used by operational managers and middle managers (Olson & Kesharwani, 2010).
TPIS have data gathering, outputting, storage, as well as processing, functionalities. As earlier noted, some TPIS stream data into given MIS like MRS. TPIS deals with data sets that are critical to businesses’ core operations. One of the commonest forms Of TPIS is the Payroll System (PS). PS help organizations grow by streamlining payroll processes and eliminating the related mistakes. They assist organizations in automating how they compensate their staff. Like all TPIS, a PS processes transactions that are routine, accurately and efficiently (Olson & Kesharwani, 2010; Oz, 2009).
Decision Support Information Systems (DSIS) are common features in many organizations. DSIS are commonly taken as systems whose operations are hinged on knowledge. They are commonly used by senior managers in facilitating the production of new knowledge. They are as well commonly employed in allowing for the integration of novel knowledge into given organizational processes. One common type of DSIS is the CSCW (Computer Supported Co-operative Work). CSCWs are used in the dissemination of innovative research outcomes. They offer interdisciplinary platforms for the exchanging and debating of emerging research ideas and outcomes concerning any social, technical, practical or theoretical issues in organizational settings.
Office Automation Information Systems (OAIS) are systems employed in projects that are aimed at enhancing staff productivity. Especially, they are used in enhancing the productivity of staff as regards the processing of particular data sets. Some OAIS allow employees to work from home and still remain highly productive. One form of such OAIS is the widely used Microsoft Office XP (Olson & Kesharwani, 2010; Oz, 2009).
There are various ways in which the examination of different forms of IS relates to this module’s learning objectives. First, the examination of the different IS allows the students taking the module opportunities for appraising how the elements taught in the module are applied in actual life. Second, the examination of the different IS allows the students taking the module opportunities for growing their extant expertise of the relevance of IS in enhancing the effectiveness of business processes.
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