Ethics refers to a system or theory dealing with values associating to human conduct, with regard to the wrongness and rightness of specific actions and to the badness and goodness of the ends and motives of such actions. Ethical theory refers to systematic effort to justify moral theories and principles and to understand moral concepts. Ethical theory in metaphysics is regarded to be metaphysics in nature which implies that ethical issues are beyond or above physics. Metaphysical issues in philosophy have historically dealt with higher existence realms past the physical realm of things that surround us. This include non-physical realm which is higher and that comprises of spirits and abstract objects. Ethical theory is founded on different main ethical perspectives. These include normative and metaethics (LaFollette& Persson, 2013). Ethics is regarded to be normative rather than descriptive discipline. The ethical theory aim is to offer a reasoned account of how people are supposed to act or be, communally or individually. In this perspective, ethics is interested with the moral belief justification and not describing the kind of moral perspective people hold. It also tries to define what it means for an action to be morally wrong, obligatory or permissible. Meta-ethics focus in the general morality nature and what defends moral judgments. This is normally based on moral truths and what makes then true. Ethical theory also focuses on moral judgment. Moral judgment refers to the process where in one defines what is bad, good, wrong, or right to warrant grouping of their own accord based on the nature of the entity or object to be judged (Fieser, 2017). People base their moral judgments on different aspects. Some may base them of the outcome where a judgment is regarded to be right if the results makes majority happy. Other may regard moral judgment based on the laws and regulations such that a judgment is regarded to be right if it abides by rules and regulations. Moral judgment might also be founded on emotions where judgment is based on past emotions, for instance torture may provoke empathy and compassion resulting development of ethical judgment from the experience. This clearly demonstrates that ethical views, judgments and acts can vary based on individual perspective, environment and beliefs among others.
Import Metaethics for Determining Moral Judgments
The phrase ‘meta’ refers to beyond or after. Meta-ethics can thus be regarded as the study of meaning and origin of ethical concept. Meta-ethics focuses on issues ranging from moral epistemology to moral semantics. However, the most common issues in meta-ethics include metaphysical and psychological issues. Metaphysical focuses on issues regarding if morality occurs independently of people, while psychological issue focuses on the fundamental mental foundation of our conduct and judgment. Metaphysics refers to the study of things which occurs in the universe. This includes both nonphysical and physical things (Bartels et al., 2015). Metaphysics entails specifically determining if moral values are everlasting truths which occur in a simple human conventions or spirit-like real. This can be viewed in two general directions that include this worldly or other worldly. Other-worldly perspective characteristically provides that moral values are impartial in that they occur in spirit-like realm past individual human conventions (LaFollette & Persson, 2013). These moral values are regarded to be eternal or absolute, and that they apply to all rational organisms throughout time and across the globe. The important of this view is that what is regarded to be morally right does not change due to any circumstances and hence, a moral judgment will always be guided by the same principles despite of variation of time or place.
How Ethical Thinking Results in Practical, Moral Action
Ethical thinking makes it possible for a person to consider what is regarded to be right based on the laws that govern human existence. This mostly includes the religious laws, cultural norms among other laws. It also makes it possible for the person involved in ethical thinking to consider the possible outcome of the action. Ethical thinking also evaluates the rightfulness or wrongfulness of a decision based on human inner conscious and based on the religious laws that are said to guide what is ethical among the believers (Fieser, 2017). By considering the consequences of an action, an individual is able to evaluate a situation and determine what is right and what is wrong based on how the action may seems to impact the life of all stakeholders involved in that specific situation. This makes one to be able to consider a practical solution that is moral. For instance, before engaging in any kind of environmental activity, I always ask myself on the effect it may have on the people in my surrounding and the globe in general. If the possible outcome harmful to many, then I consider the act unethical. I also tend to evaluate whether that act is considered right based on the laws of the country and the religious laws that I follow. For instance, lying in a certain situation can save a life or situation, however, I regard it to be wrong and in most cases, it end up hurting more people than it would safe when applying it. In such circumstance, the law, conscious and long-term outcome may not favor the act of lying. Being able to consider all possible aspects and perspectiveswhile making a decision demonstratesa more practical and moral way of thinking.