- Consider the example of a woman who is going out with a man for the first time in Sartre’s passage bad faith. What attitude is the woman adopting towards the man’s actions? What attitude is she adopting towards the man’s desires? In what way do these attitudes cause her t be in bad faith?
According to Sartre, a woman who is going out with a man for the first time understands that she will be required to make a decision either in the middle or at the end of their conversation. The woman fails to capture the man’s actions however much he may try to achieve the first approach. Again the woman is aware of the man’s desires, but she fails to apprehend them. These attitudes cause the woman to be in bad faith because they are intended to postpone the moment of making a decision as long as possible (Sartre, 1956).
- Explain why R.G Collingwood thinks that a work of art cannot be a physical object. If the original Mona Lisa were to be stolen from the Louvre in Paris, art lovers would be very upset. Since the original Mona Lisa is a physical object, would this fact show Collingwood’s view to be wrong? Explain why or why not.
G. Collingwood thinks that a work of art cannot be a physical object because artistic works only exist in the mind. If art lovers are upset following the theft of the original Mona Lisa, which is a physical object, from the Louvre in Paris, Collingwood’s views would still be right. This is because Collingwood defines art in terms of expression of emotions. He states that, before artists express their emotions, these emotions must exist in their minds in form of unclear feelings which gradually become clarified (Phillips, 2003).
A forgery of an art work according to Dennis Dutton (2003) cannot give a true representation of the work of the original author of such a work. The forged artistic work can never produce the first intention that was meant by the original author. Instead the forged work will only give a duplicate and a rough copy of what the author intended to pass across as a message. Moreover, the forgery can only go as far as imitating the artistic traditions but not getting anywhere close to producing what such traditions dictates.
According to Jean-Paul Sartre, one can become aware of the presence of others in their environment by first behaving in a manner that conforms to the traditions and beliefs of the society in which they exists. If the society views certain behaviors as being evil then a person in such a society is expected to desist from such behavior patterns. When one becomes aware of the presence of others in their environment then their behavior pattern is dictated by the rules and laws that govern that environment. One will therefore act and talk in a manner that does not go against such norms. How others look at an individual determines their social behavior patterns within the environment in which they co-exist.
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