Foraging Societies, Hutterites and Sociobiology

Most Accurate Description of the Relative Importance of Hunting Vs Gathering in Foraging Societies in terms of Nutrition and In Terms of Place in Society

Searching for wild animals and wild plants is one of the most ancient patterns of human subsistence. In fact, almost all people 10, 000 years preferred either hunting or gathering as their way of life (Kelly, 2007). However, some societies continued with this pattern of subsistence until the 20th century. In general, foraging societies passively depend on the resources contained in the environment. In most cases, they never plant food crops and they prefer domesticating inedible animals such as dogs. Such animals serve various functions such as watch-animals, hunting aids, and pets and refuse scavengers.

Nutrition in both hunting and gathering societies has always been natural. Hunters and gatherers rely on the natural provisions from the natural environment. Game meat for instance contains low quantities of saturated fats as compared to the ones found in the domesticated animals that feed on grain substances (Kelly, 2007). Hunter gatherer diets generally do have high proportions of proteins and carbohydrates as compared to the modern western diets. Their wild food contains low quantities of fats and sugars. However, for foraging societies, there are variations in their daily foods depending on what animals and plants are available. Hunters and gatherers normally have wide knowledge of the effects of weather on the availability of certain plants and animals during different times of the year. They rely on foods such as honey, game meat, and insects like witchery crabs. In such societies, children rely on breastfeeding till the age of three years before being introduced to natural food (Kelly, 2007). In terms of their place in society, hunters and gatherers mostly stay in marginalized areas. They usually establish temporary settlements using tents and brush huts and the duration taken to stay in a single place depends on the ready availability of water and food.

Hutterites Organizational Structure

The organizational structure for the Hutterites is the colony. For Hutterites, colonies are embraced as communal organizations in which equality is a core value. The males are the ones in charge of managing colonies while women engage in traditional duties like medical decisions, cooking, and clothing. There are three leaders in every colony two of which are at the highest levels as the minister and the secretary (The Nine, 2013). The minister also acts as the president in various matters. The third ranking person in each colony is the assistant minister.

Evidence Examined to try to Determine the Time of Origin of Modern Human Language

There are various kinds of evidence that exist to suggest the origin of modern human language. The first one is the belief in divinity or divine creation (Elias, 2012). Most societies around the world believed that modern human language is a gift that humans received from the gods. In this case, humans contain innate capacities that allow them to use language. The second evidence is based on natural evolution (Elias, 2012). This suggests that human brain became sophisticated as a result of evolutionary development. This influenced the possibility of language invention as well as learning.

General Focus of Sociobiology And How it is Applied to Human Behaviors

The general focus of sociobiology revolves around the evolutionary development of social behavior among all organisms especially human beings (Moore & Komdeur, 2010). Therefore, reproduction is a key concept in sociobiology because it allows passage of certain traits to the generations of the future. The complexity of sociobiology advances with the increasing interactions of individual animals as well as their groups. In respect to human behavior, sociobiology maintains that behavioral traits among humans do not occur due to special creation; instead, they result from genetic and environmental developments.

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