Hazardous Waste Discussion Questions

What distinguishes a hazardous waste from a solid waste?

Hazardous substances or waste can be possibly hazardous to environment or human health when they are managed improperly. Hazardous wastes have at least one of the four traits which include toxicity, ignitability, reactivity or corrosivity. Hazardous material can also be regarded as any material which has been designated by EPA for special consideration under the toxic substances act, the clean water act, resource conservation and recovery act or the clean air act. Solid wastes on the other hand refer to non-soluble, non-liquid material including industrial wastes and municipality garbage among others which has complex and in some cases hazardous substances. Solid waste can also include mining residue, sewage sludge, demolition wastes, or demolition wastes (Nathanson & Schneider, 2014).

Read also Solid Waste Disposal in the United States

Describe household hazardous waste. How should it be disposed of?

Household hazardous waste refer to any of household waste which include cleaners, certain paints, stains, herbicides, varnishes, pesticides, batteries, and automotive fluids among others found in dark garage corners, basements, and under kitchen skinks. Household wastes is regarded to be hazardous if it has one of the four characteristics; corrosivity, toxicity, ignitability and reactivity, irrespective of whether the waste is liquid, solid or molten form.

Read also Types of Hazardous Energy to be Considered When Authoring a Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/ Tagout)

Hazardous household waste should be properly disposed. Individuals should ensure that they only purchase what they need and if not fully used, the remaining amount should be shared with neighbors or one may decide it to donate it to the government agency, business, charity institutions, or to the programs that collet hazardous household waste (Nathanson & Schneider, 2014).

Explain the use of manifests for tracking hazardous waste.

The hazardous waste manifest system is structured to tract hazardous waste from the generator facility its production site until when it get to the off-site facility of waste management where is will be disposed, treated, or stored. The hazardous waste manifest include a form with information regarding the quantity and type of the waste being transported, waste handling instruction, and signature of all involved parties in the disposal process. The form which come in multiple copies is signed and retained by each of the involved parties as for of accountability in hazardous waste disposal and transportation processes. Once in the designated site, the receiving facility sign and return a manifest copy to the generator, confirming the delivery of the waste to the intended site. This process ensures adherence to all set waste transportation and disposal rule to ensure that people are safe from hazardous waste from any source (Nathanson & Schneider, 2014).

Read also Provisions of OSHA’s Control of Hazardous Energy Standard (1910.147)

What are the characteristics of a surface impoundment for liquid hazardous waste?

Surface impoundments refer to man-made excavations, dikes areas, or natural topographic primarily created of earthen materials which are utilized to dispose, store, or treat of liquid hazardous waste. Surface impoundments hazardous wastes are needed to be constructed with leak detection system, leachate collection and removal systems, and double liner system.

Explain three hazardous waste site remediation technologies.

There are different hazardous waste site remediation technologies. These technologies include soil flushing or in-situ treatment where extracting solutions are penetrated into the soil by the use of vertical drains, surface flooding, horizontal drain, sprinklers, surface trenches, leach fields, or basin infiltration systems. Water without or with additives is used to solubilize contaminants. The other technology used in remediation is soil washing which focus on removing heavy metals from the soil by use of soil added agents. This can be done as heap leaching or reactors.

Read also Hazards And Hazardous Wastes Assessment And Mitigation – University Of Podunk Case Study

These agents include hydrochloric and sulfuric acid which contain a pH of below 2, organic acids which include citric and acetic acid with pH of below 4, the chelating agents that include nitrilotriacetate and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and different combinations of any of the above. Sediments treatment is the third remediation technology which involves de-watering large water quantities in the soil, which is very important in permitting treatment. The treatment methods include draining water in the lagoons without or with flocculants and coagulants or by use of centrifuges or presses. Treatment techniques are similar to those employed for soil that includes chemical extraction, stabilization/solidification, and hydrocyclone (Mulligan, Yong & Gibbs, 2001).

Describe a Superfund site

Superfund site refers to any land contaminated by hazardous waste in the United States which and has been identified as a cleanup candidate by the EPA since it poses risk to the environment or human health. One of these sites is the Atlas Tack Corp which is situated in Fairhaven, Massachusetts. Site was used for manufacturing steel nails, wire akes, and cut among other similar items for 14 years from 1901 to 1985. The past facility operations process waste which included heavy metal cyanide, and acid contaminated nearby wetlands, groundwater and soil. Thus the site has been listed by EPA for cleanup, monitoring, maintenance, and operation with some of these activities being ongoing at the moment (EPA, 2018b).

Read also Case Study: Electroplater Who Claims He Has No Hazardous Waste

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