Four Facets of the Hospitality Industry – Annotated Bibliography

Singh, I. (2019). A review paper on hotel industry – a study of trend in hospitality industry and the types of hotels. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 6(3), 7189-7193.

This article discusses hotels as an element of the hospitality industry. This article focuses on a wide range of factors influencing hotels in the current world and also the hotel contribution to the hospitality industry in general. The author conducts a review to demonstrate the significance of the hotel in the hospitality industry. Singh also discusses different forms of hotels and their unique features. The article also shows the relationship between customer relationship management and the hospitality industry and demonstrates the role of technology and employment opportunities in the hospitality industry. It also reviews the recent trend in the hotel industry. He also discusses different aspects that influence the hotel’s aspect of hospitality and how an organization can use them to improve its general performance. The article aims at creating advanced knowledge about the hotel industry and how it is being impacted by different factors. This is to keep the reader on the lookout for things he or she must consider while managing hotels to ensure the adoption of effective hotel administration and management practices.

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Majid, M. A. A., Samsudin, A., Noorkhizan, M. H. I., Zaki, M. I. M., & Bakar, A. M. F. A. (2018). Service quality, food quality, image and customer loyalty: an empirical study at a hotel restaurant. International Journal of Academic Research in Business & Social Sciences, 8(10), 1433-1446.

This article focuses on determining the relationship of food quality, image, and service quality on customer loyalty at restaurants in Terengganu, Malaysia. The article employs a cross-sectional, quantitative research approach using a questionnaire to measure the above elements on the selected sample. This paper aims at establishing how improving service quality, product quality, and image can influence customer loyalty towards a specific restaurant. The article discusses the importance of product quality, brand image, and service quality in restaurants and the foodservice facet of the hospitality industry. The research determined that service quality is the greatest unique contributor to success in the foodservice or restaurant industry. It also established that enhancing service quality, image, and food quality does not only enhance customer loyalty but also assists in enhancing restaurant sustainability and reputation. Other than this, the article provides background information about the restaurants and food services facet of the industry. This helps in creating a deeper understanding of this facet of the hospitality industry, making it easier to differentiate it from others. 

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Kose, H., Argan, M. T., & Argan, M. (2011). Special event management and event marketing: a case study of TKBL all star 2011 in Turkey. Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 1-12.

This article focuses on demonstrating the dimensions used while marketing and managing a successful distinct sports event. It makes different contributions for sporting marketing managers and sport event managers on how to effectively employ event management dimensions and mold strategies based on this view. Kose et al. use a case study to analyze sport event founded event marketing and event management perspective. The article uses both primary and secondary methods of data collection to support its input on event planning and its related activities and elements. The article targets different event management dimensions that include risk management, ticketing, public relations, transportation, marketing, human resources, and budgeting. Besides this, the article provides background information on event planning, giving a detailed definition of event planning, and different types of events that a professional may be required to manage or plan. It also provides a detailed description of the above-identified elements of event planning. Kose et al. aim at enhancing the reader’s understanding of how to successfully market and manage events and to satisfy event participants fully.

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Camilleri, M. A. (2018). The Tourism Industry: An Overview. In Travel marketing, tourism economics and the airline product (Chapter 1, pp. 3-27). Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature.

This article focuses on discussing the concept of tourism and providing deep knowledge in the tourism industry.  The author gives extensive knowledge about the tourism industry, its products, and the differences among them. It enlightens the reader on tourism rationale and clarifies the tourists’ intrinsic motivations to travel. The article also explains various aspects that are integrated to create a tourism industry. The article aims to demonstrate the relationship between tourism and other facets of the hospitality industry. According to Camilleri, tourism is connected to the other three facets of the hospitality industry in that, tourists require accommodation, and food services if they are traveling to a new destination for hours, days, or weeks. They also need event organizers if they have to complete all their activities on time and in a situation where they wished to do something different or new. The article provides in-depth knowledge on how the element of the hospitality industry are interrelated and the importance of effective coordination among all elements for the success of the industry. The author also tried to demonstrate the importance of tourism in connecting all other three elements of hospitality.

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Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies – Annotated Bibliography


The recent wide scale adoption of Clinical information systems (CIS) is considered a ground-breaking development in healthcare with far-reaching long-term implications. CIS technology was originally intended for use in critical care environments and based on the collection, recording, and analysis patient’s electronic healthcare data within a dedicated computer system According to Islam et al., (2018), CIS is routinely linked to improved patient-physician communication, quality improvement, ability to support the decision-making process, and also functions as a foundation for further clinical research. Furthermore, the need for CIS technology in critical care environments is a result of a high number of medical devices in use within this particular environment and the need for comprehensive decision-making mechanisms. Each of the measurements stemming from medical devices in critical care environments is recorded electronically to promote accuracy and to further enhance the care delivery process. Among the clinical systems are associated with improved access to healthcare data, higher levels of productivity, better clinical management, improved patient outcomes and an overall reduction in medical errors (Thanos et al., 2021).Therefore, clinical systems are generally linked to improved outcomes and efficiencies within a standard healthcare setting.

Annotated Bibliography

Bodí, M., Claverias, L., Esteban, F., Sirgo, G., De Haro, L., Guardiola, J. J., Gracia, R., Rodríguez, A., & Gómez, J. (2021). Automatic generation of minimum dataset and quality indicators from data collected routinely by the clinical information system in an intensive care unit. International Journal of Medical Informatics145, 104327.

Bodi et al., (2021) conducted an in-depth evaluation of the impact of clinical systems using a minimum dataset (MDS) and quality indicators (QI) in the Coronary Unit of the Spanish Society of Critical Care Medicine. The main objective was to determine the exact extent of the application of information technology in the facility’s intensive care units (ICU) and its overall impact on healthcare providers’ efficiency. Furthermore, the researchers also sought to determine whether the impact of clinical information systems (CIS) also extended to patients within the critical care unit and subsequent impact on outcomes.  Inferences made from this initial assessment would then guide the researchers in identifying important CIS prerequisites to improve care outcomes and quality of health services on offer. The researchers, thus, developed minimum datasets (MDS) and quality indicators (QI) from electronic healthcare data collected from patients within the Coronary Unit. This would serve as an ideal tool for the automatic generation of data and metrics to assess the actual quality of care and the potential present in the manipulation of CIS data. Electronic data from patient’s healthcare data was then extracted using Python and stoned in an associative database created for this specific purpose. The new set of associative data was then tested using records from a 30-bed capacity polyvalent ICU unit providing care to intensive care patients. An initial evaluation of 4546 admissions within a 6-year period revealed that higher levels of productivity and improved patient outcomes were crucial metrics associated with the adoption of CIS (Bodi et al., 2021). The researchers also proposed that, based on results from their QI and MDS dataset, the productivity of healthcare providers and patient outcomes could be used as a standard for gauging the efficiency of CIS. Furthermore, the researchers also encouraged the national scientific society to promote the application of the proposed metrics in critical care to enhance timely recording of high-quality data for analysis to meet patients’ goals.

Pachchigar, R., Blackwell, N., Webb, L., Francis, K., Pahor, K., Thompson, A., Cornmell, G., Anstey, C., Ziegenfuss, M., & Shekar, K. (2021). Development and implementation of a clinical information system–based protocol to improve nurse satisfaction of end-of-life care in a single intensive care unit. Australian Critical Care6(4), 142-153.

Pachchigar et al., (2021) conducted a single-centered observational study to assess the impact of implementing a clinical information system (CIS) within intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia among end-of-life care nurses. The researchers sought to determine whether CIS-based protocols had any perceptible impact on nurses’ level of satisfaction, efficiency, and whether this had an impact on terminally-ill patients. The study was also conducted between 2015 and 2017 within the cardiothoracic unit of an unnamed healthcare facility offering end-of-life care to intensive care patients. Study participants comprised of 58 end-of-life ICU nurses; routinely monitored and reviewed by the researchers during scheduled stints at the 20-bed cardiothoracic unit. From the onset, each participant was informed of the study’s intention and routinely briefed on the scheduled introduction of CIS-based protocols in the cardiothoracic unit. The overall outcome, based on a survey administered by the researcher, was a higher level of satisfaction among end-of-life ICU nurses working situated in the hospital’s cardiothoracic unit and higher levels contentment with the services provided.  The initial number of participants also increased from 58 to 64 end-of-life ICU nurse. This change was attributed to an overall sense of satisfaction noted among the original pool of participants. Furthermore, the researchers recorded a median of 2 within the interquartile range of the curative treatment compared and an interquartile range of 0.049 with regard to the quality of end-of-life care provided (Pachchigar et al., 2021). This was attributed to the effortlessness associated with the new CIS-based protocol and the fact that ICU nurses were now allowed to incorporate patient’s cultural, spiritual, and ritual beliefs within their framework of end-of-life care. The researchers theorized that provisions in the new CIS-based protocols resulted in a higher rate of satisfaction among ICU nurses based on evidence of improved productivity and efficiency in the provision of end-of-life care. They, therefore, conclude that the application of electronic based protocols within an intensive care environment improved nurse’s satisfaction within their respective practice environment and a positive influence patient’s perceptions of the quality of care offered

Poba-Nzaou, P., Uwizeyemungu, S., & Liu, X. (2020). Adoption and performance of complementary clinical information technologies: Analysis of a survey of general practitioners. Journal of Medical Internet Research22(7), e16300.

Poba-Nzaou et al., (2020) participated in a pilot review of data from general practitioners (GPs) on the impact and performance of CIS technologies in care. Among its aims was to characterize GPs attitudes towards CIS technologies, identify commonly-used profiles, their application in predicting cluster membership and the subsequent performance of individual CIS technologies.  Data was collected from 5793 healthcare facilities across the European Union (EU). According to Poba-Nzaou et al., (2020) the assessment was based on the actual efficiency of combining  personal health records (PHRs), health information exchange (HIE), telehealth, and electronic health records (EHRs) as the main CIS-based technologies under review. Each of the 4 factors identified above were then used to identify the most popular factor among GPs and the results evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). A multivariate multinomial statistical regression was also conducted and the performance of clinical staff and patient outcomes compared prior to the incorporation of CIS-based technologies. Results from the ANOVAS indicated a high level of performance and patient outcomes among practitioners working within a clinical environment embracing CIS-based technologies. This also translated to high-quality care, higher levels of satisfaction with the nurse practice environment and better practice performance outcomes 2-years after the integration of CIS-based technologies. Generally, GPs attributed the aforementioned improvements to the assimilation of personal health records (PHRs), health information exchange (HIE), telehealth, and electronic health records (EHRs) technologies within a healthcare setting. The researchers concluded that CIS technologies had a positive impact on the efficiency, productivity, and satisfaction among GPs and was associated with significantly high performance. Consequently, patients benefitted from GPs practice outcomes based on the provision of high-quality care which translated to better outcomes.

Stevenson, J. K., Campbell, Z. C., Webster, A. C., Chow, C. K., Campbell, K. L., & Lee, V. W. (2019). EHealth interventions for people with chronic kidney disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews8(6), 21-64.

Stevenson et al. (2019) conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs to determine the impact of CIS-based technologies, such as eHealth interventions, on outcomes among patients with chronic kidney disease. The main purpose of the review was to determine the potential benefits and harms when attempting to initiate behavior change among patients with chronic kidney disease using CIS-based technologies.  Later, the researchers conducted a search of relevant peer-reviewed journal articles in the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies, using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs published before 2019 as a criterion for inclusion. The search also included studies discussing strategies to promote behavior change among patients with CKD.  A total of 43 studies were eventually selected discussing the incorporation of eHealth modalities as a viable intervention among patients with CKD. Six eHealth modalities involving 6617 patients were identified to determine their impact on patient’s wellbeing. Out of the initial 43 studies, 39 identified CIS-based technologies such as telehealth, remote patient monitoring (RPM) and mobile applications were linked to positive behavior change among patients with chronic kidney disease. According to Stevenson et al. (2019) CIS-based technologies influenced behavioral counseling, self-monitoring, and served as a clinical decision-aid among patients with CKD.  The researchers concluded that CIS-based technologies were capable of improving control over fluid and sodium intake among patients with CKD, therefore leading to better outcomes and an overall reduced risk of death.

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Workflow, Data Mining and Advancing Patient Outcomes – Annotated Bibliography


At the center of hospital bustle, overwhelmed staff scramble to remain on top of the paperwork cycle. Miscommunication and frequent errors frustrate nurses and inhibit the delivery of healthcare. Approvals are delayed, patients are left waiting for long hours, and information is misplaced – proving a critical challenge for a healthcare facility. While most hospitals have already adopted EHRs, and medical software, other fundamental processes like patient transfers to other facilities remain disorganized.  Omitting a single step in hospital workflows can create detrimental impacts for patients and hospitals alike. Managing different types of patient workflow in a facility is key to smooth operations. Patient workflow management refers to streamlining various tasks needed to process information by automating predictable and repetitive procedures. Patient workflow solutions assist in minimizing human errors, improve compliance to rules and regulations, reduce redundancies, oversights and ensure patients receive quality treatments. Data mining is a potential approach for building knowledge obtained from practice data in decision making. This annotated bibliography demonstrates how workflow and data mining helps in advancing patient outcomes.

Annotated Bibliography

Baek, H., Cho, M., Kim, S., Hwang, H., Song, M., & Yoo, S. (2018). Analysis of length of hospital stay using electronic health records: A statistical and data mining approach. PLoS ONE, 13(4), 1–16.

            In this article, the authors presented the factors related to the hospital’s length of stay (LOS). The article notes that LOS is an essential measure of the effective utilization of medical practices to examine the effectiveness of patient quality care, functional evaluation, and hospital management. The authors of this article argue that a reduction in the LOS rate has been associated with a decrease in the risks of causing opportunistic ailments and side effects of medication. Furthermore, the article adds that a drop in LOS is linked to lower mortality rates and improved health outcomes. Moreover, the article notes that shorter stay in hospital facilities lowers the burden of increased cost and a high turnover in beds, increasing profit margins for the hospitals and reducing social costs. EHRs processes and data mining techniques are integral factors in assessing the impact of LOS in hospitals.   

de Leoni, M., van der Aalst, W. M. P., & Dees, M. (2016). A general process mining framework for correlating, predicting and clustering dynamic behavior based on event logs. Information Systems, 56, 235–257.

            This article explored various processes of mining study approaches and suggested a new model that hospitals can use in data mining. The study showed that process mining research usually starts by discovering the process that constitutes automatic learning of raw data through process models. According to the authors, during this learning process, uncovering and conformance of constrictions occur. The article highlights that a person would want to understand why things exist at such a juncture. However, this can only be attained through the correlation of various elements assembled in the research processes. These elements are usually based on effective workflow management, which explains the next stage to be implemented. The conformance perspective, data flow, the organization perspective and the time perspective are among the characteristics that determine the following action to be executed. However, this source also argues that data components could feature fixed and variable operating costs during the implementation procedure. This leads to confusion and critical challenges. To mitigate these challenges and confusion, this article proposes a model comprising a broad and extendable series of elements related to data flow, organization management, control flow, time resources, and conformance in future nursing studies. Moreover, the article also proposes that researchers utilize a generic model designed with dependent variables comprehensively explained using correlating independent variables.

Heath, S. (2017). E-consent forms useful for patient data sharing in research. Retrieved from

            This article explores different studies discussing e-consent tools and how they determine the sharing of patient information. The author highlights that using e-consent to access patient’s data needs maximum assurance of data security. Furthermore, the author shows that facilitating patient consent to share their information is essential with the growing need for patient data in quality healthcare delivery. The article adds that many research teams have shown that medical findings mainly utilize social determinants, genomic information and biospecimens to perform scientific solutions. Unfortunately, these researchers require the patient’s consent to use their data in advancing research in the clinical environment. The author notes that patients have always supported using their data to research in the medical fields with the condition that their privacy and confidentiality will be provided to their information. In addition, the author argues that he decided to use e-consent tools to obtain the patient’s data because there are numerous ways researchers get patient data. Each of them presents different characteristics and level of satisfaction to patients. But with e-consent tools, patients have a better understanding of how they can share their data via EHRs, learn about various research avenues and give permission for their data to be used on electronic machines such as computers and tablets. The author finishes by commenting that the assurance of the researcher should serve as the standard rule that creates ethical and clinical policies for collecting consent from patients.

Heath, S. (2018). AMIA outlines data use guideline for patient-centred care, PGHD. Retrieved from

            This resource delineates that AMIA is an excellent tool for delivering patient-centred care, especially when looking into healthcare providers can evaluate the social determinants of health. The article coincides that better governance of information leads to constructing seamless data applicable in inpatient settings. The author adds that social factors of health are at the center stage of healthcare. Therefore, this can be achieved by encouraging community care collaborations and integrating social health factors. Nevertheless, collaboration and integration alone are not enough as they need a skeleton of guidelines for obtaining data for quality care to become a reality in communities. To substantiate the presented arguments, this article relied on various pieces of research from other resources to show that patient-based care can be attained from external sources within the community. According to the author, the social determinants of care include sociodemographic status, environment, and educational accomplishments. These social determinants of health, if not well curbed, can impact the delivery of care. But the author shows that with the growing technology, social determinants can be handled differently. Adoption of EHRs and strict data governance will help in eradicating the limitations of care. AMIA acknowledges that the patient is the pillar in the development and refinement of nurse informatics.

USF Health. (n.d.). Data mining in healthcare. Retrieved from

            This study assessed the steps in a workflow process in an actual clinical setting to examine precise departmental information systems that addressed patient flow. The authors note that nursing departments that want to mitigate contemporary challenges and bring care reform should begin with getting access to operational and clinical data and establishing and maintaining goals towards improving the quality of care. Additionally, the authors argue that implementing electronic medical record (EMR) is key to understanding the level of performance in different healthcare organizations. This is because EMR assists in streamlining workflow and data mining. Finally, the article quotes that the Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine (SIIM) acknowledged that quality data standards and better performance are significant indicators of improved workflow.


            Workflow management is associated with the effective handling of patient’s data. A streamlined workflow has been shown to minimize medication errors, improve the quality of care delivered, and increase HIPAA policies’ compliance. Even though the healthcare industry has gone through numerous struggles to design and redesign a robust workflow system, it should invest more funds in building an effective workflow structure and adopt modern data mining techniques to boost efficiency, minimize the cost of running hospitals, and eradicate unwanted pressure increase patient flow.

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Impact of Motivation on Employee Performance – Annotated Bibliography


Today’s business world is characterized by stiff competition in almost all industries. As a result, organizations have to find ways to maintain a competitive advantage in their respective industries. Considering that employees are the most important asset of any organization, it is imperative that employers hone their ability to get the best out of their workforce. One of the ways that they can achieve this is through employee motivation. The current research seeks to assess the impact of motivation on employee performance. Notably, an effective inquiry must be based on a rich body of literature related to the topic under consideration. Hence, the below identified six articles will be instrumental to completing the current research as they are rich in knowledge relating to the topic under consideration and provides different perspectives of evaluating the relationships between the research variables.

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Quantitative Research Articles

Sandhu, M. A., Iqbal, J., Ali, W., & Tufail, M. S. (2017). Effect of employee motivation on employee performance. Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies3(1), 85-100.

The study seeks to evaluate the relationship between employee motivation and workplace performance. Specifically, the researchers seek to understand the influence of employee motivation on job performance. The research uses a sample consisting of 120 college and university lecturers from Sahiwal city, Punjab. The research results indicate that employee motivation has a positive impact on job performance.

The researchers base the study on Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory. Thus, a plausible theory informs the conceptual framework of the research. Moreover, the research findings concur with the existing body of research on the topic. Existing literature on organizational productivity elucidates that employee motivation positively influences job performance leading to optimal productivity.

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The article will prove significantly resourceful to the completion of my research as it provides empirical evidence regarding the relationship between employee motivation and job performance. It not only confirms the existence of a correlation between the two variables but also goes further to break down various types of employee motivation strategies and their effectiveness. The article will, therefore, help me establish a strong basis for a well-informed inquiry.

Diamantidis, A. D., & Chatzoglou, P. (2019). Factors affecting employee performance: an empirical approach. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management.

The study seeks to identify factors that influence employee performance in the workplace. The research participants entail 79 human resource managers and 392 employees from various organizations.  Among the factors identified as having a strong impact on work performance is employee performance. The research results show that both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators significantly influence employee performance.

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The theoretical framework of the study entails a rich foundation of literature regarding employee-related factors and employee performance. The research findings also contribute to the developing body of knowledge in employee performance. Additionally, the findings align with the existing research body regarding the relationship between employee motivation and job performance. Thus, the research is reliable to inform the current research.

This study takes a different angle in evaluating the correlation between employee motivation and work performance. Unlike most studies, which directly assess the link between the two variables, it indirectly identifies employee motivation as a significant factor affecting employee performance. The research will, therefore, provide a different perspective on looking at the relationship between the two variables; thus, it will be instrumental to the completion of the current research.

Read also Article Analysis – Global Trends in Employee Motivation

Qualitative Research Articles

Jain, A., Gupta, B., & Bindal, M. (2019). A study of employee motivation in organization. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research (IJEMR)9(6), 65-68.

            The study seeks to evaluate the effects of motivation on employee performance and identify approaches that employers can use to motivate employees. The research collects qualitative data from Mind Science India Pvt. Limited whereby it incorporates 100 participants. Analysis of data collected demonstrates that motivation is a significant aspect within any workplace as it leads to increased job performance.

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            The research is founded on a robust conceptual framework incorporating three research theories, including Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs model, Expectancy theory, and Herzberg two Factor theory. The research findings align with these theories as well as existing literature on the topic. Moreover, it identifies forms of motivation and their effectiveness based on analysis of collected data.

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            The article will be instrumental to the completion of the current research. The article’s contents align with the current research topic. Besides identifying a correlation between motivation and employee performance, it also explores different approaches that organizations can use to effectively their workers. Thus, the article promises to be significantly resourceful to the current inquiry.

Setiawan, D. A. (2020). A qualitative study of employees’ motivation factors on organization: a case study from a company in Indonesia. Hasanuddin Economics and Business Review3(3), 112-121.

The study by Setiawan evaluates employee motivation factors and their impact on work performance. The research focuses on one (unidentified) of Indonesia’s state-owned organizations. The research findings identify salary, work-life balance, reward/recognition, and growth opportunity as motivational factors influencing employee performance. Hence, the researcher concludes that both extrinsic and intrinsic factors have a positive influence on employee performance.

Read also Annotated Bibliography Example – Employee Motivation And Retention

McGregor’s X and Y theories inform the conceptual framework of this study. The research is also based on a rich foundation of existing literature on the topic. The research findings align with the research literature and also confirms the study hypotheses. The article is, therefore, reliable to inform the current research focusing on the relationship between employee motivation and job performance.

The article will be useful to the completion of the current research as it provides rich information regarding the research topic. It also incorporates recommendations regarding how employees enhance employee motivation outcomes. Hence it will prove to be significantly important to the literature review part of the current study.

Mixed-Methods Research Articles

Kuswati, Y. (2019). Motivation Role in Improving Work Effectiveness. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute-Journal (BIRCI-Journal), 281-288.

The study seeks to assess the motivation role in improving work effectiveness of the employees of an Irrigation Network at Talaga, Majalengka. The researcher utilizes both qualitative and quantitative data. The research findings show that motivation improves employee’s morale and engagement level leading to increased work effectiveness. The researcher, therefore, concludes that employee motivation positively influences work performance.

The researcher assesses the relationship between employee motivation and job performance using various indicators, including the principles of performance, communication, authority, and mutual attention. The research is, as such, founded on an extensive literature review of the topic. Additionally, the research findings concur with existing literature on the topic under consideration.

The article will prove useful to the current literature by introducing a different perspective on the relationship between employee motivation and work performance. Rather than directly examining the said relationship, the researcher bases his analysis on how motivation impacts work environment and how this translates to improved employee performance. Therefore, the source will be significantly useful to the completion of the current research.

Deressa, A. T., & Zeru, G. (2019). Work motivation and its effects on organizational performance: the case of nurses in Hawassa public and private hospitals: Mixed method study approach. BMC research notes12(1), 1-6.

The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the level of motivation in a workplace and how it reflects in organizational performance. The research focuses on public and private hospitals located in Hawassa, Ethiopia. The research findings demonstrated that the level of employee motivation can predict organizational performance. The article, therefore, concludes that there exists a positive correlation between employee motivation and work performance.

Numerous credible sources inform the literature review section of this study. Hence, the research’s conceptual framework is founded on a rich body of literature on the topic under consideration. The research results also concur with existing literature focusing on the topic. Most importantly, the study introduces new aspects of the relationship between employee motivation and organizational performance by incorporating aspects such as job satisfaction, team spirit, job attachments, and others.

A solid body informs the research literature of the study of credible sources and theories on the topic. Additionally, the research uses a reliable instrument of measuring employee motivation whereby it utilizes the multidimensional work motivation scale (MWMS). The information presented by the article is, therefore, reliable and can be used in the completion of the current research.

The article will be useful to the research since it arrives at a conclusion that supports my research hypotheses. Additionally, it introduces a unique perspective of analyzing the relationship between employee motivation and work performance. Thus, it will prove significantly resourceful.


            Organizations must strive to establish and maintain a competitive advantage in their respective industries. One of the ways that they can do this is through enhancing organizational performance. Achieving this objective requires optimal performance from individual employees and the organization as a collective. Given the importance of employee performance, knowledge regarding how organizations can influence their workers to perform optimally is essential to employers. The current research proposes that motivation can help organizations improve employee performance. The six identified articles will prove significantly resourceful in the completion of the paper. Although they all support the current research’s hypothesis, they provide different perspectives of analyzing the relationship between motivation and employee performance.

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Water Pollution Annotated Bibliography

Abel, P. D. (2014). Water pollution in biology. CRC Press.

The author of this scholarly work looks into several consideration as far as water pollution is concerned. The scholar gives an in-depth articulation concerning the contamination of water bodies including lakes, rivers, seas, and oceans. The work is excellent towards developing the paper since it does not only look into the prevention of water pollution but also some of the causes and effects of this menace. Abel considers diseases, ecosystems’ destruction, and adverse impact on the food chain, and eutrophication as the significant negative impacts associable with water pollution. On the prevention of water pollution, Abel articulates better treatment of sewage and the use of products that are environmentally friendly as the significant approaches that individuals can utilize to curb the challenges.

Dunlap, R. E., & Jorgenson, A. K. (2012). Environmental problems. The Wiley‐Blackwell Encyclopedia of Globalization.

The two scholars look into the aspects evident over the last few decades considering the globalization of environmental problems. Besides, the scholarly work considers the socioeconomic factors associable with various environmental issues such as water, air, and wind pollution. Arguably, Dunlap and Jorgenson note the fact that human beings in contemporary society evidence increasing push against some of the environmental pressures affecting many states globally. Furthermore, the scholars analyze the political or economic aspects which are associable with the generation and exacerbation of environmental degradation.

McCarty, P. L., Bae, J., & Kim, J. (2011). Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer–can this be achieved?.

The scholarly work looks into the advances made by academicians and scholars towards realizing greater sustainability in managing water resources. Arguably, many nations globally consider various factors that can increase water storage and address problems resulting from drought and famine. The scholars reveal that states consider wastewater as a useful resource that can be utilized to provide energy and plant nutrients. As such, wastewater is used to produce fertilizer which helps to increase food production and curb chances of severe shortages. According to their articulation, treatment of water to provide energy is among the encouraging advancements characterizing the contemporary society. In summing up their scholarly work, the authors note that poor treatment of such water when recycling can lead to environmental and water pollution especially when released back to water bodies.

Sharma, S. K., & Sanghi, R. (Eds.). (2012). Advances in water treatment and pollution prevention. Springer Science & Business Media.

Through an analysis of the most recent developments as far as water pollution and treatment, the scholars give an insight into some of the concerns worth consideration to enable individuals to understand the subject matter. Sharma and Shanghi look into the causes and the many adverse effects associable with the threatening phenomenon. The scholars give right to some of the fatality associable with water pollution and its contribution towards hindering normalcy under various nations globally. Sharma and Shanghi provide an insight into the practical approaches that can be utilized to address the problem of water pollution globally effectively. According to scholars, the use of greener water treatments can faultlessly respond to the challenge of water pollution. They reveal water pollution as a global menace calling for immediate counter response considering its impacts on the ecosystem, the well-being of the human race, and adverse effects to economies.

Vesilind, P. A., Peirce, J. J., & Weiner, R. F. (2013). Environmental pollution and control. Elsevier. The book looks into the broad topic of environmental pollution evidencing why it is one of the significant challenges affecting many nations globally. The book covers aspects of ecological engineering with prioritization given to the considerations of water pollution, treatment of sludge, and legislation on water pollution. Initially, the scholars look into environmental and water pollution. Besides, they analyze aspects associable with water quality. Water treatment and supply form one of the considerable articulations at the fundamental parts of this scholarly work. In their articulation, disinfection, utilization of filtration, settling, flocculation, and coagulation realizes profound coverage. Furthermore, collection and storage of water are at the centre of this book. Here, the scholars analyze some of the technologies applicable to facilitate the treatment of water to avoid some of the adverse effects associable with the catastrophe.

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Strengthening Our Nation’s Spiritual Infrastructure – Annotated Bibliography GOVT 376

Buckley, F. H. The American Illness: Essays on the Rule of Law. Yale University Press, 2013.

In this book, Buckley (2013) offers a comprehensive overview of the associations between law and economics in areas such as federalism, business regulation, and corruption. It also explains how the American system differs from that of other nations hard to understand and contradictory business regulations, surprising judicial interpretations of contracts that are written, and tort laws that are different in each state. This creates far heavier costs of litigation on American firms and obstructs economic growth.

Read also The Age of Exploration – Annotated Bibliography 

Dees, Robert F. Resilient Nations the Resilience Trilogy. 2014.

In this book, Dees (2014), demonstrates how God breathed life into the spirit and soul of America. It identifies American spiritual infrastructure as the most critical infrastructure that undergirds the nation. Spiritual infrastructure is also regarded as a national power element and the invisible glue that makes America unique. The book offers mandates for the Americans as the people, as the statesmen, and as the church.

Read also Hooverville in The Great Depression – Annotated Bibliography

Hamilton, Marci A. God vs. the Gavel: Religion and the Rule of Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

In this book, Hamilton (2005), challenges the universal assumption that every religious act requires constitutional protection. Although Hamilton acknowledges that religious acts offer various benefits to the people, it is not always benevolent. The book thesis is that any individual who harms others needs to be controlled by laws that control others, and the truth is the religion could do more harm. According to Hamilton, most religious and academic organizations are used in creating stronghold around religious acts that make it considerably hard to prosecute children’s medical neglect by religious healers, child abuse by clergy among other unacceptable behaviors. The book focuses on changing the public debate regarding religion by creating public attention on religious entities’ tactics to avoid litigation and to continue harming others.

Ilesanmi, S., W. Lee, and J. Parker. The Rule of Law and the Rule of God. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

In this book, Ilesanmi, Lee, and Parker (2015) examine the religion and law competing regimes and provides a multidisciplinary strategy of demonstrating the international scope of their influence. The author argues that the tension in the two institutions yields to their disagreement on the forms of rules that should control society and human life. They also disagree on the source where those rules should be derived from.

May, Christopher, and Adam Winchester. Handbook on the Rule of Law. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018.

In this book, May and Adam (2018) explore various issues that will assist the novice with an interest to understand the rule of law to develop a considerable comprehension of its traits and political results. The book targets those who acknowledge that the rule of law is significant but with little legal background. The book focuses on advancing their knowledge and understanding of norms of the rule of the law.

Nedzel, Nadia E., and Nicholas Capaldi. The Anglo-American Conception of the Rule of Law. Springer Nature, 2019.                                                                                                                                    

In this book, Nedzel and Nicholas (2019) provide a multidisciplinary description of the rule of law as a core pillar of the tradition of a classical liberal. The book assesses the initial meaning of the rule of law as introduced originally by A. v. Dicey; British jurist. The book then analyses its subsequent explanation by Oakeshott, Leoni, Hayek, and Fuller. By handling the main legal and philosophical features of the rule of law, the book will seem to engage in business ethics, law, public policy, political theory, economics, and philosophy.

Painter, Richard, and Peter Golenbock. American Nero: The History of the Destruction of the Rule of Law, and Why Trump Is the Worst Offender. Benbella Books, 2020.

In this book, Painter and Golenbock (2020) give a clear description of the rule of law. They consider the rule of law as the most essential principle that is fundamental to American civilization. Additionally, they describe power abuse that has taken place throughout American’s history. The authors offer various examples of how the rule of law has been violated in the U.S. to include Puritan New England characterized by Salem Witch Trial in the early 1900s to the most recent violation of the 1st Amendment by President Trump by the burning entry of Muslims in the U.S.

Parpworth, Neil. “3. Rule of law.” Law Trove, 2018. doi:10.1093/he/9780198810704.003.0003.

In this chapter, Parpworth (2018) discusses one of the important principles or doctrines of the rule of law in the UK constitution. The author gives the meaning of the rule of law and differentiates between the substantive and formal connotations of the rule of law. It also describes principles incorporated by the rule of law. Some of these principles include that law should be clear and open, the law should be prospective, and that there should be equality in the law, courts access, and natural justice. 

Ribas, Armando P. Rule of Law: The Path to Freedom. Stockcero, 2012.

In this book, Ribas (2012) discusses great confusion in the world and particularly in western civilization. This confusion is said to originate from two reams that include the conceptual and semantics. The book’s author exposes the fact that the majority apparent rights are more than the government absolute power in the people’s name that contains the new deity. The author notes that this is the main reason why Latin America experienced democracy failure.

Sarsfield, Rodolfo. “Conceptualizing the Rule of Law.” Rebuilding the State Institutions, 2019, 19-38. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-31314-2_2.

In this chapter, Sarsfield (2019) explores the varying concepts of the rule of law as well as its extra prerequisites given in the literature. The author organizes the review based on tow competing conceptual analysis accounts utilized in hierarchical structures of political science. Different concepts definition is organized by hierarchical structures along a thinner to thicket continuum definition, while radical categories conceptual analysis proposes the primary category existence, with varying concept diminishing subtypes.

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Parkinson Disease – Annotated Bibliography

Balestrino, R., & Schapira, A. H. V. (2020). Parkinson disease. European Journal of Neurology, 27, 27-42.

This article offers a general and comprehensive analysis of Parkinson’s disease, focusing more on the disease prevalence in Europe. The article discusses the disease epidemiology and risk factors in Europe, where the older population of older than 60 years is said to be more prevalent. The article also discusses the disease pathophysiology, disease mechanisms, and genetics, clinical features disease diagnosis and differential diagnosis, disease treatment, and future treatment of Parkinson’s disease. The article gives all the basic and comprehensive knowledge that the reader would require to understand the disease. The article can be used to inform the researcher on all basic information about the disease to advance the reader’s knowledge of the technical aspect of the disease including epidemiology and pathophysiology.

Read also Schizopheria in Today’s Youth – Annotated Bibliography

Esmail, S. (2018). The diagnosis and management of Parkinson’s disease. Scholar Journal of Applied Sciences and Research, 1(9), 13-19.

The article aims at offering an overview and, update information on the management and diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. According to the author, the Parkinson’s disease diagnosis is clinically made and the management is presently limited to symptomatic treatments. The author identified levodopa as the main pharmacological therapy for Parkinson’s disease.  The author also highlights the clinical mimics of Parkinson’s disease that may create confusion in the disease diagnosis and measures that the physician should take to avoid misdiagnosis. This article gives an in-depth discussion of Parkinson’s diagnosis and management promoting readers’ understanding of the same. The article can be used by researchers to supplement their knowledge on how to make an accurate diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease.

Sveinbjornsdottir, S. (2016). The clinical symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurochemistry, 139(Suppl. 1), 318-324.

The article gives a general view of Parkinson’s disease focusing more on its clinical features. The author starts by defining Parkinson’s disease, giving an overview of the most affected population in society. The author also discusses both non-motor and motor clinical features of the disease in the disease progression context. This gives a clear understanding of how the disease is manifested and its general impact on the body. The article also discusses the main Parkinson’s disease treatment strategies and their complications. This article gives a deeper understanding of Parkinson’s disease, enabling the reader to get a deeper understanding of the disease. The article can be used to inform the researcher more on the motor and non-motor Parkinson’s disease symptoms and complications that the patient is likely to experience after adopting different forms of treatment.

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Hooverville in The Great Depression – Annotated Bibliography

The Great Depression represents one of the harshest economic periods ever experienced in modern history. Apart from the fall in stock experienced during this time, a host of other little-known social problems also arose. This paper focuses on homelessness, and accompanying shantytowns typically referred to as “Hooverville”.

Read also The Great Depression Indicators

            I chose this topic since the social issues associated with the Great Depression remain at the fringes of academia, though equally devastating. My research into this topic was an eye-opener for it allowed me to gain a comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon as experienced during that particular time in history. The following is an annotated bibliography with a brief review of the material explored and different author’s perspective on the Hooverville phenomenon.

Read also Social Problems – Homelessness

Freedman, R. (2005). Children of the Great Depression. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Russell Freedman is a world-renowned author known for delving into topics least explored by his academic contemporaries. He prides himself in exploring additional angles in historic events that have had a great impact on Western Civilization. Freedman has been recognized internationally for his academic works; a recipient of both the Orbis Pictus and Sibert Medal.

In this book, Freedman explores the ravages of the Great Depression by specifically focusing on homelessness and its effects on children.  He attributes the development of Hooverville shanty settlements to social changes experienced during this period which momentously affected middle-class urban youth and the then generation of boxcar kids. The memoirs, diaries and letters explore homelessness through the eyes of Depression-era children whose parents had to grapple with the vicissitudes of life during this tumultuous period.

Read also Variables, Hypotheses, and Relations – Homelessness and Crime

Fremon, D. K. (2014). The Great Depression in United States History. Enslow Publishers.

David Fremon is one of the most prolific writers in North America. He has written numerous books and regularly pens newspaper articles for leading publications. Fremon particularly focuses on past injustices and endeavors to breathe new life into past historic events to a younger emerging audience.

In this particular book, Fremon explores the abrupt end of the Roaring Twenties and the onset of the Great Depression. Although expected to last for a few months, the stock market crash soon proved hard to surmount, with a myriad of negative effects on hard-working individuals. Fremon describes Hoovervilles as a direct product of the joblessness that began on “Black Tuesday” rendering most individuals unable to revert to their erstwhile lifestyles.

Goff, L. (2016). Shantytown, USA. Harvard University Press.

Lisa Goff is a leading educationalist who currently serves as a senior faculty member at the University of Virginia. She is an all-rounded scholar whose works have specifically focused on American Studies and events that shaped American society. Goff also partners with national publications to equip the public with crucial knowledge regarding historic events.

Goff investigates the “shantytown” phenomenon in the United States as crucial point in Western Civilization where slums now emerged as a defining hallmark of developing nations. Though Hooverville was a common aspect of the American urban landscape, it is largely forgotten as a product of the Great Depression. Goff regards these shantytowns as one of the earliest examples of self-reliance by victims of the recession.

Gravelle, R. (2015). Hooverville and the Unemployed: Seattle During the Great Depression.

Randal Gravelle is a respected faculty member of Western Washington University and best known his contribution to American History. He has lectured at the institution for the past 20 years and is now widely regarded as an authority in events surrounding the Great Depressions. Gravel’s special interest in history has allowed him to deconstruct historic events with great precision while providing an in-depth evaluation of its implications.

In this book, Gravelle delves into the development of Hooverville, the construction of shacks and how squatters managed to survive during this dark moment in history. His text is based on the accounts of homeless individuals living in Seattle while still struggling to make ends meet. Gravelle also addresses the individual efforts of affected by this crisis, in addition to the pitfalls and achievements of President Roosevelt’s New Deal.

Hoover, H. (2015). The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover: The Great Depression, 1929-1941. Ravenio Books.

President Herbert Hoover was a central figure during the Great Depression. As the chief executive during this financial recession, he presided over a period of economic uncertainty that affected nearly every household in the United States. Hoover is also blamed for the outbreak of homelessness during this period by mandating the eviction of all unemployed persons.

            President Hoover’s memoir also dedicates a chapter the development of Hoovervilles in the United States for which he is blamed. Hoover is adamant that shantytowns were bound to develop given the circumstances at the time since it was a cataclysmic period in the history of Western Civilization. He specifically identifies the loss of gainful employment and depleted savings as the main reasons why Hoovervilles developed in nearly all major cities in the United States.

McElvaine, R. S. (2009). Down and Out in the Great Depression: Letters from the Forgotten Man. University of North Carolina Press.

Robert McElvaine is a respected intellectual well-versed in contemporary history. He currently serves as a Professor of Arts and History at the prestigious Elizabeth Chisholm University where he has been for the past decade. As a history aficionado, McElvaine strives to harness the discipline and to probe crucial subjects that are least explored.

McElvaine’s account of the Great Depression focuses on the forgotten individuals who grappled with various forms of hardships experienced during the time. He investigates the stories of men, women and children who lived through the Great Depression and particularly those who made shanty towns their abode. McElvaine underscores the daily anguish of individuals residing in Hoovervilles through a collection of close to 15,000 letters expressing the thoughts and emotions of affected parties.

Rauchway, E. (2008). The Great Depression and New Deal: A Very Short Introduction. OUP USA.

Eric Rauchway is currently regarded as the most respected historical pundits in the United States. He currently serves as a professor of American history at the University of California where he strives to impart fundamental historical knowledge.  Rauchway is an expert on the political, social and economic aspects of American history which also makes him a specialist on the Great Depression.

Rauchway’s short introduction also highlights Hoovervilles as a defining feature of the Great Depression. He, therefore, strives to provide a detailed account of the circumstances surrounding this reality in Western Civilization and efforts that soon followed to contain its permeation. Rauchway offers a concise and informed account, with a special focus on the New Deal as an antidote for the ravages of the Great Depression.

Roth, B. (2009). The Great Depression: A Diary. Public Affairs.

Benjamin Roth was a budding lawyer during the Great Depression. As a result of the difficult times experienced during this period, Roth resorted to moving west and set-up shop in Youngstown, Ohio which was a burgeoning Midwestern industrial town. It was here that he had a front-row experience of the actual extent of the Great Depression on American families and the nation’s social fabric.

Roth expertly applies his skills as an educated professional to pen his impressions of the Great Depression in his diary. He investigates its effects on the American economy and its relationship to other facets of life. Roth’s accounts were recorded as they unfolded around him, where he makes particular mention of the development of shantytowns in Youngstown and the deplorable living conditions

Steinbeck, J. (2008). The Grapes of Wrath.

John Steinbeck was a talented American author and a recipient of the 1962 Nobel Prize in Literature. He was popular for crafting realistic literary masterpieces using his keen and astute social perception. His non-fiction books, such as The Grapes of Wrath (1939), are littered with succinct descriptions of historical events such as the Great Depression.

In The Grapes of Wrath, Steinbeck addresses the social impact of the Great Depression by portraying the grim reality of the conditions in squatter camps around major Hoovervilles. He paints an elaborate picture of destitute families living in squalid conditions around California and the Bay area. Steinbeck sheds more light on the plight of non-European migrant workers who had moved to this area who had no other option than to build Hoovervilles as the only practical form of accommodation.

Temin, P. (2010).The Great Recession and the Great Depression.

Peter Temin is an esteemed author known for his multi-disciplinary approach to major issues that have impacted Western Civilization. He is an economist who particularly dabbles in the area of economic history and trends that have emerged over the past century. Temin currently serves in a tenured position at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) as a Gray Professor Emeritus of Economics.

Temin’s paper explores the recession experienced in recent history and compares it to the Great Depression. According to the author, it portends a dark future which is particularly reminiscent of the stock market crash of 1929 and the development of Hoovervilles in Anacostia, Central Park, Riverside Park, Seattle and St. Louis. Temin seeks to draw the reader to these parallels in an attempt to prevent history from repeating itself.

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Descriptive Annotated Bibliography – Proposal for a New Employee Orientation Program

Nandi, R. (2015). Effective Induction for Employee’s Performance and Satisfaction. International Journal of English Language, Literature and Humanities, 3(4): 28-41.

            This article explore the different methods of introducing new employees to their workplace in order to determine the most effective strategy of induction. According to this article, most organizations lack the ingredients required to formulate the most effective induction strategy. This is attributed to neglected functions by many organization to finance and conduct research about employee orientation strategies. A review by this article indicated that an induction program, whether it lasts for six months or one day do not only enhance the performance of the employee, but also promotes retention. To determine the most effective induction strategy, this article sort to identify the employees’ characteristics in relation to orientation procedures, determine the correlation of employee performance and employee orientation program, and find out relationship between employee satisfaction and employee orientation. The results indicated that a well-organized and planned induction program assists the new employee to get assimilated to the workplace and off on the right food immediately. The article concluded that effective induction program improves the performance and satisfaction of the new employees.

Read also New Employee Orientation Program Outline

Grillo, M. & Kim, H. K. (2015). A Strategic Approach to Onboarding Design: Survey, Materials & Diverse Hires. Cornell: Cornell University ILR School.

            According to this article, onboarding process is essential for successful employee retention and performance. However, research have shown that in Fortune 500 companies, half of new employee hired to the position of senior executive fails within the first 18 months, while the half of the hourly employees quit the new job within the first 120 days. As a result, organizations have embarked on research to determine the effective onboarding program that would help to prevent these disappointments and failures witnessed in the process of employee transitions. More importantly, effective onboarding program helps the organizations to improve retention, engagement, performance and time-to-productivity of new hires. Further analysis indicated that research about the most effective onboarding process is vast, thus requiring focus on key aspects. Therefore, this article focused on three key aspects that influences the onboarding process: Key considerations for onboarding diverse hires, important materials to align the onboarding process and best practice to build an onboarding survey. The findings indicated that a strategically designed onboarding program assists the organizations to integrate new employees and achieve higher retention, engagement and productivity.

Read also New Employees Orientation And On-Boarding Program

Markos, S. & Sridevi, M. S. (2010). Employee Engagement: The Key to Improving Performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12): 89-96.

            According to this article, employee engagement is a broad contruct that influence almost all facets of human resource management. Failures to appropriately engage employee in the workplaces leads to mismanagement of human resource management. This article built the foundation of employee engagement from three aspects: organizational citizenship behavior, employee commitment and the concept of job satisfaction. The process of employee engagement needs to be tailored to ensure that training programs enhances transitional process as well as promotes two-way relationship between employer and employee. Analysis indicated that active employee engagement serves as a stronger predictor of positive organizational performance. Through employee engagement, the organization is able to improve organizational citizenship behavior, employee commitment and job satisfaction. The findings in this article indicated that employees who are actively engaged tend to develop emotionally attached to the organization. This makes the employee to be more enthusiatic to the workplace environment, hence increasing productivity since employees strives to go beyong the conctructual agreement. The article concluded that organizations should initiate two-way employee engagement strategy and incorporated into the organizational culture so that new employee develops with the culture of two-way employee engagement.

Read also Developing a Sales Training Program

Boettcher, J. (2009). Onboarding: A New New-Hire Orientation Process. Menomonie, WI: University of Wisconsin-Stout.

            This researched focused on analyzing the emrging onborading practices used by small Midwest organization. The objectives of these emerging onborading practices is to assists the small Midwest organization to cut down the costs of employee turnover. The information was collected through the use of in-person interview of human resource managers of various Midwest organizations. The interview focus on aspects that emcompasses the operations of the organization and the information given to the new employees during the hiring process. These included the main purpose of the organization, the critical people within the organization, the main functions of different offices, the customers of the organization and the inner workings of the organization. The findings indicated that new employee felt that they understood the operations of the organization more after being actively engaged in onborading practice. From the supervisors perspective, new employees who went through onborading practice where more confident what they were doing as compared to employees who came onboard through traditional employement methods. Therefore, the article concluded that emerging onborading practices were more beneficial to the new employees and organizations.

Read also New Employee Orientation and Training Plan – Assignment Instructions

Vernon, A. (2012). New Hire Onboarding: Common Mistake to Avoid. Journal of Training and Development, 66(9): 32-33.

                According to this article, Human Resource Department struggles to establish equilibrium in the new employee orientation program. Therefore, the application of the on-boarding process focused on the immediate requirements of the new employees and thereafter a follow-up with additional information. Research has suggested that employers make mistakes by giving too much information to the new employees within a very short time. An effective on-boarding process requires the information given to the new employees to be limited depending with the absorption rate thus very important for the retention. This article indicated that on-boarding process is not a one day event that ends at the first after the new employees start working with the organization. The study conducted by this article suggested that since the employee gained tenure by working with the organization, an orientation program needs to last more than one day in a new employee process. The sediments corroborate the findings that require the release of information be done in peace mills and segments in order to improve retention.

Chen, X. (2010). Suggestions on Effective Corporate New Employee Orientation Program for Human Resources Specialists. Online Journal of Workforce Education and Development, 4(3): 1-11.

                According to Chen (2010), about two-third of the organization agitate for the need to improve new employee orientation program. Studies have shown that new employees who attend orientation training program exhibits higher levels of obligation to the organization than those not attending. Study by this article suggested that the education system, distance instructors or instructors engaged at non-peak times be unable to attend a face-to face orientation, thus limiting the capability of employees to become familiarized to the organization. The findings showed that new employees that missed the orientation process had a greater decrease of engagement and disconnect with the organization. Therefore, reinforcing the suggestion that the earlier the new employee familiarized with the culture of the organization, the most oriented employees will be. Traditionally, new employee orientation approach faced difficulties associated with the gaps of new employees starting to work for the organization and attending at the new employee orientation program.

Bradt, G. & Vonnegut, M. (2009). Onboarding: How to get your new employees up to speed in half the time. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

                Human resources department takes full responsibility of hiring new employees whenever a need arises. The hiring process involves competitive stages that require applicants to pass through before offered employment. The engagement of the new employees starts the moment the contestants are notified through phone calls, emails or letters for their employment offer. As required, the engagement process involves making new employees be aware of their duties and responsibility in the workplace. Nonetheless, all departments need to develop on-boarding and new employee orientation program to assist newcomers integrate with the culture of the organization. First impression given to the new employees is paramount. An effective employee orientation offers new employees with an encouraging impression of employment and significantly influences the new employee’s enthusiasm, throughput and job satisfaction.

Weinstein, M. (2008). In Onboarding. Training, 45(7): 3.

            Studies by this article indicated that organizations have shifted from the traditional one day orientation training programs to a three months program. The urge to retain professional employees by the organizations has taken a front seat thus forcing the Human Resource professional to develop an on-boarding program. The findings concluded that increased employees’ retention and worker productivity level is directly related to the effective on-boarding programs.

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Use of Bar-coded Medication Administration Technology to Enhance Quality and Safety Standards in Nursing – Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography on Technology in Nursing – Assignment Instructions

Write a 4-6 page annotated bibliography where you identify peer-reviewed publications that promote the use of a selected technology to enhance quality and safety standards in nursing.


Rapid changes in information technology go hand-in-hand with progress in quality health care delivery, nursing practice, and interdisciplinary team collaboration. The following are only a few examples of how the health care field uses technology to provide care to patients across multiple settings:

  • Patient monitoring devices.
  • Robotics.
  • Electronic medical records.
  • Data management resources.
  • Ready access to current science.

Technology is essential to the advancement of the nursing profession, maintaining quality care outcomes, patient safety, and research.

This assessment will give you the opportunity to deepen your knowledge of how technology can enhance quality and safety standards in nursing. You will prepare an annotated bibliography on technology in nursing. A well-prepared annotated bibliography is a comprehensive commentary on the content of scholarly publications and other sources of evidence about a selected nursing-related technology. A bibliography of this type provides a vehicle for workplace discussion to address gaps in nursing practice and to improve patient care outcomes. As nurses become more accountable in their practice, they are being called upon to expand their role of caregiver and advocate to include fostering research and scholarship to advance nursing practice. An annotated bibliography stimulates innovative thinking to find solutions and approaches to effectively and efficiently address these issues.

Annotated Bibliography on Use of Bar-coded Medication Administration Technology to Enhance Quality and Safety Standards in Nursing

The selected technology is bar-coded medication administration (BCMA) technology. This is a technology used by nurses in health care organizations to reduce medication administration errors through electronic verification of the five rights of administrations of medication. These include the right route, right patient, right time, right dose, and right drug at the bedside of a patient (Shah et al., 2016). The annotated bibliography features different research articles focusing on assessing the effectiveness of this technology in reducing errors in medication administration, and factors that influence the levels of errors or variation in levels of errors in different health care settings.

Read also Assessing Quality and Techniques for Improving Quality and Safety at Alfredo Gonzalez Texas State Veterans Home

Baiden, D. (2018). Factors affecting the impact of barcode medication, administration technology in reducing medication, administration errors by nurses. Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics, 13(1), 1-12.

In this article, Baiden (2018) assesses and reviews literature on the aspects influencing the effect of BCMA technology in lowering medication errors in hospital settings by nurses. Baiden (2018) used the socio-technical model as the conceptual framework. The BCMA impact in lowering errors in medication administration was found to differ based on various factors including nurse associated issues, technology associated setbacks, and clinical settings. Aspects contributing to this variation included system monitoring and measurement, software and hardware computing infrastructure, pressures and regulations, clinical content, external rules, human-computer interface, culture and procedures, people, communication and workflow, as well as internal organization policies. This article informs nurses and nurses informatics on the importance of regulating the eight internal and external factors that influence BCMA performance, for better results.

Read also Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005

Boonen, M. J. M. H., Vosman, F. J. H., & Niemeijer, A. R. (2016). Tinker, tailor, deliberate. An ethnographic inquiry into institutionalized practice of bar-coded medication administration technology by nurses. Applied Nursing Research, 33, 30-35. 

In this article, Boonen, Vosma and Niemeijer (2016), conducted research to explore the nursing practice for nurses operating BCMA with the intention of understanding its effect on their work. The research was founded on the claim that BCMA effectually lowers the quantity of errors in medication dispensed to patients. The main intention of the research was to determine whether this does happen in actual practice. The researchers employed institutional praxeology and ethnography research methodology to uncover the BCMA complex practice by nurses. The research results demonstrated that the BCMA implementation created a number of issues resulting in constant tinkering of the technology by nurses. Simultaneously, they were unceasingly deliberating the best techniques of tailoring the BCMA to all their patients. The research concluded that although operating BCMA is frequently misinterpreted as being automatic and mindless, technology conformity is needed as the tinkering with BCMA normally entails comprehensive consideration by nurses. This article will be used to inform nurses about the importance of learning a technology for effective use.      

Kandace, K., Linda, H., Pat, M., Barbara, T., & Constance, J. (2016). Creating a culture of safety around bar-code medication administration: an evidence-based evaluation framework. JONA: Journal of Nursing Administration, 46(1), 30-37.

In this article, Kandace et al. (2016) develop a BCMA technology 4-phased evaluation program to assess the level of current technology integration into BCMA practices, procedures, and policies. The aim of this evaluating was to identify the barrier to the use of BCMA best-practice. The program offered a framework for frontline nurses to make an alliance with hospital leaders to progressively improve and evaluate BCMA by use of systematic processes. The evaluation established that the effectiveness of BCMA is contingent on compliance with protocols of best practice. This article will be used to inform nurses on the best way to ensure BCMA efficiency and how they can be propagated through partnership with organization leaders and by employing continuous systematic improvement process that combines new evidence-base practice to guarantee safety in medication administration. 

Seibert, H. H., Maddox, R. R., Flynn, E. A., & Williams, C. K. (2014). Effect of barcode technology with electronic medication administration record on medication accuracy rates. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 71(3), 209-2018.

In this article, Seibert, Maddox, Flynn and Williams (2014) conduct research to evaluate the BCMA effect with electronic medication administration record (eMAR) technology on error occurrence in medication administration. A posttest-pretest nonequivalent assessment group was utilized in examining the BCMA-eMAR effect on the accuracy rate of medication administration at two community-founded hospitals. The results demonstrated that the general rate of accuracy at hospital 1 significantly increase from 89% in the first phase of implementation to 90% in the third phase of technology implementation. Hospital two also experienced a 3% increase in accuracy rate from what was recorded in phase one to what was recorded in phase 3, with the final accuracy rate being 96%. It was concluded that BCMA-eMAR implementation in the two hospitals resulted in a significant increase in total accuracy rate in medication administration, and did not introduce any new form of error into the process of medication administration. This article will inform nurses and healthcare organizations on the important of BCMA technology in enhancing medical safety and the importance of integrating eMAR in BCMA for more improved results.

Shah, K., Lo, C., Babich, M., Tsao, N. W., & Bansback, N. J. (2016). Bar code medication administration technology: a systematic review of impact on patient safety when used with computerized prescriber order entry and automated dispensing devices. The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 69(5), 394-402.

In this article, Shah et al. (2016), conduct a systematic review of the literature published between 1992 and 2015 on how BCMA technology influence patient safety when implemented with automated devices for dispensing and prescriber order entry using a computer. The researchers evaluated 37 articles that met their research purpose after employment of inclusion and exclusion criterion. According to the assessment, there is limited comparative evidence offering BCMA justification with its complementary technologies. About 5 studies in the review proposed that BCMA contains the ability to lower total medication errors, transcription errors, and administration errors. Its effect on wrong time errors is unclear. BCMA was also found to contain the ability to enhance compliance with the need to check the identity of the patient prior to medication administration and to chart medication administration on the MAR. This research will inform the nurses on the importance of BCMA in reducing medication errors and also inform on research gaps that they can focus to gain more evidence on BCMA technology in the administration of medicines.

Thompson, K. M., Swanson, K. M., Cox, D. L., Kirchner, R. B., Russell, J. J., Wermers, R. A., Storlie, C. B., Johnson, M. G., & Naessens. J. M. (2018). Implementation of bar-code medication administration to reduce patient harm. Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes, 2(4), 342-351.

In this article, Thompson et al. (2018) conduct research to evaluate the effect of BCMA technology implementation on the rate of errors in medication administration in an inpatient environment, particularly those that cause harm to the patient. The analysis involved assessing cases of reported medication-associated adverse incidences for over 12 months before BCMA implementation and five years during the 11 separate BCMA implementation waves. Only actual errors were considered. The assessment results demonstrated that there was a decline of 43.5% of reported errors in medication administration, after BCMA technology implementation. The rate of errors associated with harmful medication declined by 55.3%. There were no extreme errors created by BCMA factors. This research concluded that BCMA’s consistent use enhances patient safety by lowering the quantity of harmed patients by errors involving medication administration. This article is used to demonstrate the benefits of BCMA technology when effectively employed in nursing practice.

Truitt, E., Thompson, R., Blazey-Martin, D., Nisai, D., & Salem, D. (2016). Effect of the implementation of barcode technology and an electronic medication administration record on adverse drug. Hospital Pharmacy, 51(6), 474-483.

In this article, Truitt et al. (2016) conduct a research study to assess the effects of BCMA and eMAR technology on adverse drug events (ADEs) profile in a hospital environment. Truitt et al. (2016) conducted an after-and-before study examining the effects of the said technology on ADEs profile at a teaching medical center with 400-bed using incident reports. The ADEs report in 5 months post- and pre-implementation periods were compared to establish if there was ADEs rate reduction in the phases’ medication use. The searchers also assessed the error severity and alterations in the distribution of error types. The results of the research demonstrated a decline in ADEs after technology implementation and transcription errors, although the administration error remained constant. There was also a considerable decline in the administration errors’ severity level. Implementation of BCMA and eMAR was found to improve patient safety a great deal.  This article is used to inform nurses on specific improvements BCMA-eMAR improves and what one should focus on as an individual for the best outcome.

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