Criminal Justice Peer-reviewed Journal Articles Annotated Bibliography

Beckett, K. (2012). Race, drugs, and law enforcement toward equitable policing.

Criminology & Public Policy, 11(4), 641-653.

The research study by Katherine Beckett, a distinguished law professor and author, explores the racial discrepancies that define the enforcement of the drug law in the US. The discrepancies are rather pronounced in some states, including Seattle. In almost all the states, Blacks are more likely to be arrested for drug-related offenses than Whites. The study investigates the reasons between the race-based composition of drug users and deliverers on one and the race-based composition of the individuals arrested for being drug users and deliverers. Besides, the study sheds light on the patterns and practices that may be helpful in explaining the discrepancies. In particular, the study establishes that there is a significant overrepresentation of Blacks in drug-related arrests compared with the number of persons breaching drug laws within Seattle. Besides, the study establishes that, within Seattle, the discrepancies are fueled by law enforcers’ concentration on cocaine, especially crack cocaine, elementarily.

The study is rather relevant to the upcoming research since it brings to light some significant concerns regarding criminal justice systems. Ideally, the systems should serve all populations equitably. Even then, the study makes it clear that particular considerations lead to inequalities in how criminal justice systems deploy particular resources to serve given populations. The considerations may relate to race, gender or related attributes. Notably, in the study, Katherine Beckett demonstrates that criminal justice practices are political, as well as institutional, political choices and not structurally established outcomes.

Jang, H., Lee, C. & Hoover, L. (2012). Dallas’ disruption unit: Efficacy of hot spots

deployment. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 35(3), 593-614.

Elementarily, the research study seeks to investigate police operations in areas designated as hotspots of given crimes to establish the effect of rotation-based police deployment on particular crimes. The data used in the study was supplied by the Dallas Police Department. The study establishes that rotation-based police deployment in the hotspots has instantaneous impacts on total index offenses, nuisance offenses as well as violent crimes. In Dallas, the deployment was rather effective in manning pedestrian and automobile stops, arresting those suspected of specific crimes like nuisance offenses and violent crimes, and the issuance of citations. Even then, the study establishes that the deployment does not have residual effects in relation to deterring subsequent criminal activities in the hotspots.

The study is rather relevant to the upcoming research since it gives ample insights into police operations. Notably, the foremost contact between those breaching particular laws and a given criminal justice organization, or system, is commonly the police. Ideally, policing operations, which are criminal justice resources, should be made available in all areas where crimes are or may be reported. Even then, the operations are most required in areas designated as hotspots of given crimes. The study is clearly demonstrates that the deployment of criminal justice resources should be well-considered since they are rather limited.

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