Poor nutrition during pregnancy period is associated to a number of health concerns and diseases among the child during and after birth. Poor nutrition can cause retarded growth on fetus particularly if it happens in the first five weeks of pregnancy when fetus develop lungs, brain and heart. This may cause heart diseases in the future and diabetes type 2. Deficiency of Folate in early pregnancy stages result to poor development of neural tube. This may yield to conditions such as spina bifida. Calcium deficiency result to poor skeletal development while iron deficiency causes low birth weight and retardation in child’s growth. This may in the long run increase danger of impaired mental and physical development. Vitamin D deficiency result to fetus rickets. Iodine deficiency is associated to mental deficiency, psychomotor effect, neurological cretinism, congenital abnormalities and spastic diplegia (VMC, 2010). Generally, pregnant women under-nutrition can results to other fetus conditions that include dyslipidaemia, glucose intolerance, impaired energy homeostasis, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, obesity, reduced health during adolescent and adulthood, chronic kidney failure, abnormal organs development or organs dysfunction, psychiatric disorders, obstructive lung disease, osteoporosis, and infectious diseases (Miese-Looy et al., 2008).
Examples of Good and Bad Nutritional Choices for Baby and Mom
Good nutritional choice for a pregnant mother should be well balanced with each food type being given a specific portion per day. It should be rich in vitamins from both fruits and vegetables, proteins from both animals and plants, carbohydrates and low in fats. It should also be high in fibers and all other required minerals obtained from different food. The best portions should be taken as illustrated in the pyramid below to ensure enough level of calorie, vitamins, minerals, acids, fiber and fats (Johnson, 2015).
Poor nutritional choice for pregnant women involve eating unbalanced food, low portion of certain type of food or concentrating with source of a certain food type. For instance eating beef all the times that animal proteins is needed, eating orange every time fruits are needed or eating cabbage every time vegetables are needed. Eating junk foods which is high in fats and carbohydrates or sugar is also poor nutrition. Mothers should focus on eating all food types from different sources or mixed sources to enhance good nutrition (Mayo Clinic, 2014).
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