An Institutional Review Board (IRN) is described as a group of professional task with the responsibility of monitoring research designed intended to obtain information from or about human subjects. The composition of the IRBs include members drawn from multidiscipline research as well as from the communities where the research is conducted(Bronte-Tinkew, et al., 2008). There are three different types of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs): Local institutional review boards, central institutional review boards and commercial institutional board. All the three types of IRBs serve a common goal, which is to protect the rights of human subjects who take part in the research. This paper discusses two of the three different types of IRBs and how it is applied in different organizations.
Central Institutional Review Board
These are the IRBs that monitors research that covers a large areas and multisite clinical trials such as cancer research that are conducted in different places. These studies requires central institutional review board because the expertise goes beyond the expertise found in the local communities. For example, when center for disease control commission a research for a certain disease in the United States or globally, central institutional review board is tasked with the responsibility of this kind of research.
Commercial Institutional Review Board
Unlike central institutional review boards, commercial institutional review boards are independent IRBs and are contracted as commercial agencies to perform the task of monitoring research that involves human objects. These agencies are not affiliated to any specific institution, hence get paid for their services(Bronte-Tinkew, et al., 2008). Analysis have indicated that the use of commercial institutional review boards have increased significantly in the recent past since it is perceived to be independent and are not likely to be compromised.
The similarity and the difference between the two types of IRBs
The similarity between the two types of IRBs is that they perform the same function of monitoring research that involves human objects and ensures that ethical values are adhered to throughout the research process. They also ensures that human objective participating in the research have given their consent letters. The difference between central institutional review boards and commercial institutional review boards is that one is affiliated to specific institution while the other is not affiliated to any of the specific institution(Bronte-Tinkew, et al., 2008). Also, commercial institutional review boards are paid to conduct research monitoring. The other difference between the two IRBs is that central institutional review boards specifically conducts reviews on large researches, while commercial institutional review boards conducts reviews in small and large studies involving human objects.
The importance of Institutional Review Board in the organization
The organizations that conduct out-of-school time program, IRBs ensures that confidentiality of the participants, privileges, rights, the welfare and the data collected from the research is protected. In this case, IRBs are guided by three principles: respect for persons, beneficence which ensures that study maximizes benefits and minimizes the risks of the participants and the society and justice which means the study does not exploit one group to benefit the other(Bronte-Tinkew, et al., 2008). Another important aspect associated with IRBs is that the vulnerable population such as children, people with disabilities and those individual from poor backgrounds are protected. The participants must understand the research, the risks involves and the extent to which they are required to participate in the study.
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