Compare and contrast the key features of the following features of the following models of decision making: the Rational Model, the Carnegie Model, the Incrementalist model, the Unstructured Model, and the Garbage- Can Model.
In the rational model, the decision makers is rational and when faced with a problem, chose the solution that best advances the decision maker’s interests, and explore all possible solutions. The eight steps as noted by Draft in the bid to break the model include the following respectively; monitoring the decision environment, defining the decision problem, specifying decision outcomes, diagnosing the problem, developing alternative solutions, evaluating alternative, choosing the best alternative and implementing the chosen alternative ( Draft,1989)
The bounded rationality of individuals and the political aspect of the organizations are taken in to account when defining the Carnegie model. In his description of the model, Allison has included the following: political in the sense that the activity from which the outcomes emerge is best characterized as bargaining, the technique employed in this process often resemble those in legislative assemblies, though outcomes in the sense that what happens is not chosen as a solution to a problem but results from coalition, compromise, confusion among government officials who see different faces of an issue, and competition(Allison, 1986). Draft points out that Carnegie model is associated with top management. One of the major part of the organizational decision making in Carnegie model is building agreement through a managerial coalition
Incremental decision process model stresses on the fact that many major decisions are made through a series of small decisions. Unwillingness to radically deviate from established patterns, previous decisions, or established procedures often constrains decision makers. Decision makers often go back through a previous decision and try something new if they run in to a barrier, or failure (Draft,1989).
In the bid to explain the pattern of decision making in organizations that experience extremely high uncertainty such as change and growth required in learning organization, the garbage can model was developed. The originators of garbage model referred to these uncertain conditions as organized anarchy. The model combines the Carnegie model and the incremental models, and deals with the pattern of flow of multiple decisions within the organization whereas; the Carnegie and incremental models focus on how a single decision is made. It helps the decision maker in the frequent decisions being made and to think about the whole organization. It was originated by Michael Cohen, James March and Johan Olsen.
Un structured decision making model defines decision processes that have not been encountered in the same form and for which no explicit and predetermined set of ordered responses exist in the organization(Mintzberg, Raisinghani, and Theoret,1976)