Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Provide an in depth discussion on the pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes as it occurs over time. Include signs and symptoms, diagnostic studies and the underlying pathophysiologic process causing the signs and symptoms. 

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic health condition characterized by an alteration in how it metabolizes glucose. Individuals with type 2 diabetes either fail to produce insulin or maintain healthy levels of glucose in their blood (Kasper et al., 2018). Marginal insulin resistance characterizes the condition’s pathophysiology, which eventually results in the deterioration of β-cell function functionality (Andrew Kagan, 2015, p. 43). It is also critical to acknowledge that there is a direct correlation between insulin resistance and obesity in populations globally.

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As explained in the portal hypothesis, the adipose tissues containing heightened fatty acids that are non-esterified results in an increase in ectopic fat causing β-cell dysfunction. Type 2 diabetes has, over the past five decades, been on a steady rise among young children and now childhood obesity. The result is insulin resistance signaling an early onset of the condition. Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes are an increased regularity in feeling thirsty, intermittent urination and blurred vision. The Glycated hemoglobin test, random blood sugar test and oral glucose tolerance are typical diagnostic studies utilized by doctors to establish whether an individual might have diabetes. The Glycated hemoglobin test provides an average reading of glucose levels in the blood within a two month period.

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On the other hand, the random blood sugar test reveals the presence of type 2 diabetes in readings that are above 100 mg/dl. The oral glucose tolerance test also probes glucose levels by requiring patients to fast overnight, sip a sugar drink the next morning then take a blood sugar test. Surplus glucose in the blood is excreted as urine and the main reason why frequent urination is a symptom of affliction by the condition. Excessive thirst is a common sign of type 2 diabetes and as a result of dehydration. Moreover, high glucose levels cause the eye’s lenses to swell, resulting in blurry vision.

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