anatomy and physiological processes creates a broad topic of discussion.
Assumptions have to be made so as one can understand the physiological
processes involved in biopsychology (Smyth, 2004). Biopsychology involves the
study of human emotions which develops the relationship of the nervous system
to biopsychology. This is proven by some theories of attention and perception.
The essay aims explaining physiological processes involved in biopsychology and
the analysis of theories of attention and perception.
Functional Physiological Processes and Perceptual Processing
processing is a biological process that involves the interaction between
sensory input processes and one’s prior knowledge. Perceptual processing is
subdivided into categories such as visual and audition. The association of
response preparation, selective attention and activities related to mental
imagery illustrates the effects of prior knowledge in immediate sensory
activity (SAH, FABER, LOPEZ DE ARMENTIA & POWER, 2003). These attention
mechanisms therefore, apply anatomical and physiological functional processes.
The normal anatomical and physiological functioning helps one to distinguish
their actions from external independent agents. These mechanisms functioning
illustrate the biological importance of psychology hence the relationship
between biology science and psychology.
anatomy of vision as a perceptual process begins in the eye’s retina. The image
seen by one’s eyes is collected inform of photons and converted into electrical
signals in the retina (SAH, FABER, LOPEZ DE ARMENTIA & POWER, 2003). The
conversion helps in the simplification of brain interpretation of the image to
construct our perception of the visual world.
This process is anatomical since it sets a basis to understand the nest
steps of visual hierarchy which are enormously rich and complicated. The eye
has three layers that function anatomically and physiologically since they play
a crucial role of visual processing. The photoreceptor layer helps in transforming
photons into electric signals while the inner nuclear layer has horizontal
cells that help in receiving input from photoreceptors and gives output to the
photoreceptors. Ganglion cell layer receives inputs from bipolar cells and send
their outputs to the brain. The brain receives the signals in form of action
potentials through the eye’s optic nerve. The ganglion cells therefore, play an
important anatomical role in ensuring the anatomical process of vision is
complete. Therefore, the anatomical functionality process involved in vision is
a practical example of a perceptual process that uses the sensory function of
processing has been associated with several physiological processes. Perceptual
processing is defined as the organization and interpretation of senses in one
with an aim of understanding the environment (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). The
steps that one uses to organize and interpret the senses are physiological
because they have a biological aspect. For instance, physiological processes of
identifying objects in the world, observation and selection are key examples of
perceptual processing. Perceptual processing is affected by both internal and
external physiological factors. The internal factors include personality, experience
and motivation while the external physiological factors include the objects
appearance, that it its size and intensity. The internal physiological factors
are closely linked to perceptual processing than the external factors. These
physiological processes help in audition rather than in vision whereby one’s
perception is attracted. Therefore, physiological processes are important in
determining the nature of the perceptual processing.
of Physiological Processes
processes are founded on psychological assumptions that build up the arguments
surrounding the processes. The main assumption in physiological processes is
that the processes explanations are convincing (Mechner, 2010). Convincing is
an important human receptive behavior. Physiology aims at addressing issues at
a detailed approach. For instance, the use of drugs affects one’s behavior
thereby influencing his social life. However, a physiological approach of
addressing the issues would focus on the effects of drugs on one’s body. In
addition, issues in physiology are made more convincing by the application of
reductionist arguments to address concerns. Physiology psychologists explain
physiological processes in terms of brain structure. This assumption leads
psychologists to made great discoveries on both internal and external impacts
of drugs such as the effect on one’s mood. Therefore, assuming that every
physiological process is convincing helps in the advancement of psychology.
psychologists also assume that they cannot explain the complex behavior and
experience in relation to the current life challenges (Umarova et al., 2011).
This means that assumption acts as a challenge to physiologist because they
have to invest their concentration on the physiological processes so as to have
a better understanding on the processes. Therefore, the assumption also leads
to the discovery of other physiological variables that ought to be considered.
The variables include the variation on a person’s actions when in different
social settings. This helps in a deep investigation of the physiological
processes leading to more detailed physiological conclusions.
approaches also apply the assumption that one’s behavior and experience can be
explained using physiological changes (Umarova et al., 2011). This assumption
helps in the exploration of biopsychology because it makes it possible to
investigate the brain, nervous system and biological factors. This attracts the
use of sophisticated equipment with an aim of exploring one’s brain structure
and nervous system. In addition, the assumption helps in the understanding of
receptive human sense. Therefore, the explanation of a person’s behavior and
experience by physiological changes is an important assumption that leads to
the development of stable arguments.
use of people’s behavior as assumptions, however, is flexible. This is because
the perspective of human behavior has various strengths and weaknesses (Mechner,
2010). The flexibility of the perspectives is a challenge that has enabled
psychologists to avoid different perspectives on the understanding and study of
human and animal behavior. This has led to constant research on the assumption
basing their research on the fact that there is no correct perspective.
Therefore, the assumption made in physiological processes has led to the
development of physiology psychology.
System and Biopsychology
nervous system is a crucial system of the body as it helps one to understand
psychology from a biological perspective. This is the common relation between
the nervous system and biopsychology that gives psychology a scientific touch
(Eysenck & Keane, 2005). The nervous system consists of a network of nerve
cells and fibers that forms the sensory organ of the body. The nervous system functions
anatomically in transmitting nerve impulses between parts of the body.
Therefore, the development of the nervous system forms the foundation of
development of the nervous system is explained using bio-psychological terms
because a person’s actions and behavior change as growth in the body occur.
Human body growth happens in terms of cell growth (Eysenck & Keane, 2005).
For instance, every human began as a zygote cell that develops into a grown up
human being. For proper growth, cell differentiation, neuronal migration and
formation of neural connections occur. The three aspects of growth explain
biopsychology of a person. Cell differentiation helps in the creation of new
cells such as the muscle cell. This cell helps in a stronger human. Therefore,
the psychology explanation of human beings strength can be explained using the
nervous system. Neuronal migration helps in the proper location of cells. This explains
the analogical functioning of the body. Neural connections are made to ensure
that body processes that require two cells to function together perform their
tasks effectively. This means that the development of the nervous system
through the growth of body cells explains the biological aspect of psychology
whereby a person’s actions is influenced using the system. Therefore, there is
a deep relation between one’s nervous system and biopsychology.
are different categories of the nervous system that enhance the definition of
biopsychology. The main categories are the central and the peripheral nervous
system among many other nervous systems categories (Mechner, 2010). Each of the
nervous systems influences one’s behavior in a different way. This explains why
the nervous system is related to biopsychology. For instance, the central
nervous system receives processes and stores information. This creates a
receptive function of the body. The central nervous system also orders muscles,
glands and body organs. The central nervous system causes a shift on one’s
behavior, and if an external factor directly impacts the human body, the
central nervous is among the first body organ to be affected. This is because
the central nervous system is made up of body’s sensitive organs. Therefore,
the use of drugs can affect one’s body through the reaction by the central nervous
system. The nervous system is associated with biopsychology hence an important aspect
in determining the body’s functions and behavior.
of Selected Theories and Biopsychology
of attention and perception are important in defining a person’s concentration
towards a given aspect. External factors are also covered by the theories
because perceptual processing is directly affected by factors such as
listening, vision, and ambition. The main theory of perception is the single
detection theory. This theory examines how external influences affect a
person’s perception. The fact that the signal detection theory analyzes the
process of perceiving and not perceiving stimuli creates a psychological aspect
in human beings (Corbetta& Shulman, 2011). In addition, the single
detection theory predicts what one will pay attention to among competing
stimuli. This theory touches on the biological response of humans as affected
by perception. Therefore, biopsychology is further explored using the
perception theory of signal detection.
top-down and bottom-up processing theory is another perceptual theory that that
improves one’s ability to fill gaps that surround him or her. The theory
explains how one develops a predisposition to perceive something in a certain
way. The theory, therefore, illustrates human behavior in ensuring he or she is
comfortable. This involves the biological reception to perception processing
(Corbetta& Shulman, 2011). Top-down processing theory develops an
expectation notch in a person. If an action is done contrary to the
expectation, the bottom-up processing applies that helps one to recover from
misconception. The expectation is controlled by the body’s nervous system
showing a deep connection between the theories of perception and biopsychology.
Therefore, perception is an important aspect within biopsychology that is
elaborated by the theories.
theory is a theory that explains the character of attention in humans. The
theory was developed by Donald Broadbent whereby he recognized information
processing approaches. The theory aims at investigating processes that are
involved in switching attention (Corbetta& Shulman, 2011). This is a
process that occurs in one’s brains structure thus explaining the link between
Broadbent theory and biopsychology. The theory explains the process of
acquiring stimuli and directing them into the sensory buffer. This acts as a filter
for information that biologically is practically reflected through the
attraction of human’s attention. The theory elaborately makes people see how
their attention is focused and overloaded by the use of stimuli. The diversion
of attention in human beings is a biological process that applies the use of
body stimuli. This means that the Broadbent theory uses biological aspects to
explain human attention hence its close relation with biopsychology.
Made Using the Research Resources
research resources apply a practical approach towards explaining the biological
concept engulfed in psychology. The resources develop their arguments on the
basis of assumption. The main assumption in the resources is the assumption in
the psychodynamic perspective (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). This involves a
psychoanalysis approach developed through ones subconscious, denial, repression
and personality. These assumption perspectives help in defining the psychology
contribution in psychology, hence developing a firm basis for biopsychology.
Psychoanalysis also involves the explanation of human mind contribution in
different human occurrences and situations. For instance, most of the research
resources have based their explanation on biopsychology on perception
processing and brain structure. This assumption simplifies the exploration
process through illustrating the mind contribution in human action. Therefore,
biopsychology resources illustrate biological illustrations through the use of
scientific assumptions of psychoanalysis.
conclusion, biopsychology is an important aspect of psychology that assists in
the exploration of the biological aspect of psychology. It involves the
contribution of anatomical and physiological functional processes in perceptual
processes. This enhances the elaboration of biopsychology as an internal body
factor that is closely related to nervous system. In addition, the theories of
attention and perception help in the analysis of biopsychology through their
elements. Although there are assumptions behind biopsychology, the area of
study has advanced making it to be one of the common psychology topics.
Therefore, biopsychology covers a broad aspect of human behavior hence its day
to day human experiences.
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