Tag: Qualitative Research

Is Qualitative Research Non-Scientific?

Quantitative studies rely on objective measurements and numerical analysis of data collected via surveys questionnaires, and pools, wherein the researcher manipulates pre-existing data by use of computational means. In general, quantitative studies focus on the collection of data and generalization of findings across all groups of people who experience the same phenomenon in the same context. On the other hand, qualitative research depends on a broad methodological approach involving collection of non-numerical data and its interpretation. It is therefore exploratory in nature and is used to primarily understand underlying reasons, motivations, and opinions by providing insights into the studied problem or by hypothesizing and developing ideas for potential quantitative research. The mixed methods research approach integrates both methods in a single study with quantitative analysis as a base technique to uncover common patterns in data and qualitative exploration as a way to get deeper into the problem under study. Because of its exploratory nature, qualitative research has bed cited as “non-scientific” by many critics. This essay aims to compare a quantitative and a qualitative study to find out whether the claim is true.

Read also Characteristics of Qualitative Research Studies and When it is Appropriate or Not

Viorela sought to evaluate the secular trends of overweight and obese children in Finland using a quantitative approach in order to focus resources to obesity prevention and achieve cost-effectiveness in the healthcare system. The main aims of the study were to analyze whether prevalence of obesity in children has changed in four decades, to analyze secular trends in BMI, as well as to evaluate how Finnish parents can assess weight classes for their children. The data used for the research was pre-collected in hospitals via auxological measurements of height and weight. The researcher began by providing a comprehensive review of literature concerning the definition of obesity, assessment of body composition, classification and origin of obesity epidemiology of obese and overweight children, consequences of the condition, and secular trends in maturation and growth.

Read also Two Major Ways in Which Qualitative Research Differs From Quantitative Research

To make sense out of the data collected in the span of four decades, the study statistically analyzed the data by use of SPSS. The researchers checked for validity and reliability of the data prior to the evaluation by examining the completeness of the data and then presented it in form of charts, odds ratios, and their confidence intervals according to year. Descriptive statistics were also used to represent distribution. Although the researcher did not collect primary data by themselves, the use of quantitative methods allowed them to measure and analyze data using variables. This was beneficial because it allowed for objectivity about the findings. The technique was also relevant in hypothesis testing because of its ability to analyze data via statistics. Even so, the researcher ignored a larger part of the study’s context and had to use a large sample of data in order to achieve more accurate results.

Read also Concepts And Types Of Reliability And Validity That Apply To Tests

In a second study, Moyer and a group of researchers wanted to conduct a body-mass index screening by assessing the readability of the results letter and qualitatively analyzing parents’ responses to it. The methods used for the study involved calculation of readability, creation of focus groups of parents of guardians of 8-14 year-old obese children, and the use of a semi-structured interview guide for eliciting responses. The researchers conducted qualitative content analysis to recognize emergent themes (Creswell and Creswell). Readability levels indicated high levels than recommended and the analysis pointed to the various themes about obesity such as concerns for screening, usefulness of the BMI letter, impact of self-esteem, and failure to understand the letter. The ultimate conclusion was that the BMI letter had underachieved its intended purpose with select parents.

Read also Sources of Bias for Quantitative and Qualitative Research

By using a qualitative approach, Moyer et al. enjoyed the freedom to let the research unfold in a natural manner. Indeed, their study did not require a strict design, yet the researchers were able to gain detailed and rich data in the form of comprehensive descriptions. The main approach was to look at the context and social meaning of the BMI phenomenon in the studied population. However, the researchers were heavily involved in the research process and therefore may have given the study a degree of subjectivity (Neuman). This could skew the gathered data. Overall, the results gained from Viorela’s study were based on a scientific analysis by use a statistical computing tool, and are therefore scientifically relevant while those obtained from Moyer et al. were based on multiple realities which gave a holistic presentation of experiences in a particular setting, despite leaving out contextual sensitivities.

Read also Designing Qualitative Research

In conclusion, this essay found out that both quantitative and qualitative approaches have their pros and cons. Quantitative research involves a large sample and do not require a substantive length of time for data collection but are not in-depth and may overlook testers’ or test-takers’ experiences as well as their meanings. Oppositely, qualitative research elicits deeper insights into the design administration, and interpretation of testing and assessment in addition to exploring participant behavior, feelings, understanding, and perception. Thus, qualitative research is not scientifically inferior as it focuses on the context behind data patterns. In fact, qualitative research method can be used to identify variables in preparation for quantitative research.

Characteristics of Qualitative Research Studies and When it is Appropriate or Not

Introduction

Qualitative research is a kind of inquiry which information communicated via behavior and language in a natural environment. It is used to explore human behaviors. This form of research is referred so by different terms reflecting different research approaches. Qualitative research is structured to investigate the human elements of a provided topic, where unique methods are utilized to evaluate how individuals experience and see the world. Qualitative researchers are concerned about understanding the meaning constructed by people; people’s experiences of the world and how individuals make sense of their world.

Read also Two Major Ways in Which Qualitative Research Differs From Quantitative Research

Qualitative research thus seeks to offer understanding of human behaviors, experiences, intentions, perceptions, and motivations based on observation and description and using a naturalistic explanatory approach to a subject and its circumstantial setting. Qualitative research is refers to a positioned activity which traces the observer in the world. It comprises of a set of explanatory, material practices which enhance the visibility of the world. These practices change the world into a sequence of representations that include memo, field notes, recordings, interviews, photographs, and conversations to the self. At this degree, qualitative research entails naturalistic, interpretive approach to the world (Islam & Faruque, 2016).

Characteristics of Qualitative Research

Qualitative Research Sample

Qualitative research characteristically a smaller sample size compared to the sample size required in quantitative research. However, the qualitative research sample size needs to be large enough to acquire enough data to effectively describe the interested phenomenon and handle the research question. The qualitative researchers’ goal should be to attain saturation, which happens when adding extra participants in a research does not yield to extra information or perspectives. This saturation point can vary from one form of qualitative research to another. For instance, the ethnography participants should range from 30 to 50, grounded theory should use 30 to 50 interviews, while phenomenological studies need to have 6 to 25 participants (Sandelowski, 1995). 

Read also Sources of Bias for Quantitative and Qualitative Research

In addition, there is no any specific formula used to determine the right sample size in qualitative research. However, there are factors that can be considered while determining the sample size. Some of these factors include the nature of the study topic, then quality of information required by the researcher, and the design of the study (Morse, 2000). An adequate sample size in qualitative research is proposed to be the one which allows deep, case-based evaluation which is seal of qualitative inquiry, and that the outcome is a richly and new coarse understanding of experience.

Type of Data Collected

Qualitative research normally involves the collection of descriptive data from interviews, and observations. The data can be collected verbally or in a written form, especially when unstructured or semi-structured questionnaires are used to collect data. The collected data in qualitative research can range from personal experience in form of a narrative, individual opinion, feelings, or thoughts regarding a certain event or situation, and artifacts. Artifacts in this case include past events material evidence which include personal information demographics or historical information about people, society or culture. 

Data Collection

There are various ways of collecting the required data in qualitative research. Some of these methods include focus groups, observation, interviews, field notes, analysis of materials and documents, and reflective journals. Qualitative research involves the use of semi-structured or unstructured interviews rather than structured interviews. These interviewed can either happen face-to-face or through phone. The interviews are mostly tape recorded to be analyzed later. The researcher may also consider using focus groups interview where six to ten people in a group are interviewed. This form of data collection can either be semi-structured, structured or unstructured. Written narratives mostly offer reflections with regard to a prompt or question.

Read also Qualitative Vs Quantitative Research And Their Strengths And Weaknesses

They have different structures. Questionnaires mostly involve written replies to open-ended questions either in computer or written surveys. General topics are highly controlled, and responses are in brief comments which might lack the required depth for analysis. Observations are normally done by the researcher and they are specifically helpful in understanding the participants’ behavior in a natural environment. Notes are documented immediately after or during observations. Observations are normally done secretly without participant consent to ensure that they behave in the most natural way. Document review may involve assessment of official and unofficial materials related to the topic of study. This may include minutes, letters, memos, websites, or program description among others (Sullivan & Sargeant, 2011).    

Data Analysis

The qualitative data analysis methods are founded on three strategies of qualitative data analysis which include organizing and preparing data, coding and data presentation in the figure, tables or text form. There are different forms of qualitative data analysis and their use relies on the framework within which qualitative research was adopted. .The research questions are utilized as a guide for carrying out the analysis. Qualitative data analysis has common characteristic of inductive analytical process which involves reduction of data, display of the data and drawing conclusion verification. The main process of data analysis in qualitative research involves the identification of common patterns and themes emerging with relation to the research objective. The researcher then determines how the patterns and themes associate to the research focus. Codes are then developed based on the identified themes.  Codes are labels or tags for helping analysis units to the inferential or descriptive information compiled in a study. Codes are used to move data to a higher abstraction level.

Read also Designing Qualitative Research

The computer programs are then used process the qualitative data further based on how data is codified into paragraphs, words, sentences or phrases (Ngulube, 2015). For instance in an actual qualitative research involving interview, observation or questionnaire survey, the researcher assesses the observation and report the created impressions using a structured format. The recorded interviews are transcribed and also reported in a structured format. Questionnaires are also reviewed and the result recorded in a structured format.  The data is interpreted after recording mostly by developing themes identified based on the research and from all data sources. Computer software such as STATA or SPSS is then used to process the data further for easy interpretation.  

Results Presentation

Qualitative data presentation depends on the method used to collect the data.  For instance interview data result can be presented by selecting quotes which are most representative or/and poignant of the research findings. Qualitative data can also be presented in percentage form, especially is situation where coding, and theming was easy and hence finer data processing was achieved through computer programs processing. In this case, data can be further presented in graphical forms including charts, tables, and graphs (Verdinelli & Scagnoli, 2013).

Two Major Ways in Which Qualitative Research Differs From Quantitative Research

Generally there are two types of research that one can use to conduct study and these are qualitative and quantitative. The choice of a particular study depends on the goals and objectives for which the study is conducted, (Polit & Beck, 2010). In qualitative research study, special interest is placed on use of the sensory methods like observation and listening in gathering of data. Qualitative research has found a great deal of application in nursing, especially in evidence-based research and is increasingly being accepted in medicine. On the other hand, quantitative research is an investigation that relies on numbers to explain phenomena.

There are major differences that exist between these two forms of research and this touch most on the flexibility of the two methods. The two major differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods occur in their methodologies. While qualitative research seeks to study perspectives in individuals or phenomena, quantitative research on the other hand seeks to prove a hypothesis.

            Tools in Qualitative and Quantitative Research

            Qualitative researcher uses a more structured approach in collecting its data. The major difference between qualitative research and quantitative is that in quantitative research, the researcher employs structured questionnaires, surveys and observation. The questionnaires are often detailed and these are then presented to the participants in the field. However, in qualitative research, the questionnaires are semi-structured in nature and include some questions that guide the respondents.

The structured questionnaires in quantitative research provide data, which is then expressed in numbers for analysis. Since numbers in quantitative research are often numeric in nature, it provides a way in which statistical tests can be applied to test such data, a feat that is absent in qualitative research. Statistical tests used in quantitative research include mean, median, variance and deviations. These descriptive statistics are very useful in determining differences between groups and preference trends among other statistical facts.

However, in qualitative research, participant observation, in-depth interviews and focus groups are often commonly used. Data obtained from qualitative research are often used to describe characteristics or qualities of phenomena. Although encoding provides a way in which the data can be reduced into numbers in qualitative research, this is often not employed. Questionnaires in qualitative research are semi-structured in nature and are mainly used to get qualitative measurements and as such no measurements are done like in quantitative research. Moreover, there are no statistics used in qualitative research, unlike in quantitative research, instead descriptive words are used to explore phenomena.

Sampling

Sampling techniques provides another major difference between quantitative and qualitative research methods. In quantitative research, large samples are used. Often, the study population in quantitative research is large and this is divided into smaller samples using random sampling. In order to get unbiased and reliable findings the samples are given equal chance of occurrence and various strategies of random sampling which include stratified, systematic, cluster and stratified are used. Sampling procedure involves dividing study population into groups and the samples are then selected randomly from the population. The use of larger samples in quantitative research provides a better way of making generalizations using the statistical tests.

However, the focus of qualitative research is on smaller samples of the population. This often takes a form of focus groups, and the main sampling strategies common are snowball, quota and purposive sampling. The main interest in qualitative research is to explore and to explain phenomena. This study design is often concerned more on the process than the outcomes, which is not the case in quantitative research.

Sources of Bias for Quantitative and Qualitative Research

In research, bias can be defined as the process of introducing a systematic error into the sampling and thus encouraging one outcome over the other, (Arnold, 2010). This can be attributed to many reasons, for instance due to experimental error, where the researcher fails to take into account all the research variables. There are many types of biases and all these depend on the research design employed. The following are the possible research biases for both qualitative and quantitative research.

Read also Two Major Ways in Which Qualitative Research Differs From Quantitative Research

Bias in Qualitative Research

In qualitative research, bias is defined in terms of the validity and reliability of the research findings, (Polit & Beck, 2012). If the findings are not reliable and valid, then they shall be termed as biased. The main disadvantage of bias is that it leads to distortion of truth in addition to producing skewed data.

Bias from Moderator

            The moderator is the individual who is responsible for collecting the research data. The moderator can be a source of bias based on his/her facial expressions, mode of dressing, tonal expressions and style of language among other factors. Although this type of bias is hard to eliminate, it can be minimized through maintenance of neutrality in tonal expression, mode of dressing and language.

Biased Questions

            The way in which questions are asked can influence the answers given by respondents. There is need for the interviewer to determine biased questions and rephrase them. A question forms the main basis in which information is collected and this can lead invalid findings if they are biased. The following are the major ways in which questions can lead to biased research findings.

            Leading Questions

The most common form of bias in asking of questions is the tendency of the field interviewer to ask questions that suggests possible answer, (Green, 2013). Leading questions give slanted answers from respondents. An example of a leading question can take the form of, “Doctors have found that sugars are actually responsible for excess fat in our bodies. What do you think?”

Misunderstood/ Unanswerable Questions

            Another form of bias with regard to asking of questions is asking the respondent a question, which he/her cannot understand. The respondent will be forced give his/her answer based on the perceived understanding and this can give biased information.

Biased Answers

Biased answers arise from statements that are generally untrue or partially true. The common occasions where such answers are obtained are when conduction interviews on focus groups. The presence of dominant respondents in focus groups may influence other respondents and this may create skewed answers. Additionally, another source of bias can arise from inconsistent answers especially in questions where one leads to the other question.

  Biased Sample

Sample refers to subgroup of the target population where research is conducted. If the sample is not screened well, one may interview wrong people. Interviewing respondents who do not form the subgroup constitutes bias. Another form of bias in sample selection is failure to use random sampling in the selection of the sample. Random sampling ensures that the study samples have equal chance of selection.

Biased Reporting

Sometimes, bias can arise from reporting of the results. This source of bias may arise because of personal beliefs, customs, attitude, culture and errors among many other factors. If the person reporting analyses the research information based on his/her beliefs other than the view perceived by the respondents, the findings shall be compromised and hence biased.

Bias in Quantitative Research

            Whereas in qualitative research an effort is made to understand the source of bias, in quantitative research, the researcher tries to eliminate bias.

Read also When Multivariate Analysis Is Appropriate For A Quantitative Study

Design Bias

Design bias encompasses bias that may arise when conducting the experiments, as well as during analysis of the results. Design biases are always common, mostly due to the failure of the researchers to take into account the likely impact of the bias in the research they conduct.

Sampling Bias

Sampling biases occurs in quantitative research when a researcher compromises with the selection of the study subgroup. For instance, a researcher may decide to omit a certain group in the study sample, or include only a specific group. For example, a study on breast cancer that includes only male participants is said to be biased and its results cannot be extrapolated to cover entire study population that include females. Similarly, when a study is done outside a recreation centre on students in a psychological study is biased since it is not inclusive. The major source of sampling bias occurs in systematic and random sampling.

Read also Sampling Strategy and Sample Size for a Quantitative Research Plan

Random and Systematic Bias

Random and systematic sampling can be a source of bias if the researcher fails to select a representative sample. For, example, if a research is done on a population of around 10,000 students and the researcher takes a sample size of 40 students, then the research would be deemed biased since it is not representative. Additionally, if on selection process, the researcher picks specific group of students then it would give biased results since the chosen study sample should always possess an equal chance of being studied and this should be randomized.

Read also Factors That Must Be Assessed When Critically Appraising Quantitative Studies

Qualitative Research Article Summary – Minority Identity and Self-Esteem

Porter & Washington (1993) studied the concept of self-esteem among the Hispanic and American Asian sub-groups and compared their findings on the existing literature on the self-image of the African American people. A summary of the model used in this research is found on page 139 of the research article. This research article primarily employed grounded theory in its qualitative research design, and this is the reason why it was chosen. Reviews were done on the available theoretical models done on Asian Americans and Hispanics. The research findings were then compared to the existing literature on African American self-image.

Problem Statement

            The research sought to investigate the personal self-esteem among the Asian Americans and Hispanics. The research identified the research problem after a review of the existing theoretical models on Asian Americans and Hispanics showed that they centered primarily on description that focused on ethnic groups rather than self-image, (Porter & Washington, 1993).

Statement of Purpose

The main purpose of the research article was to describe the paradigms of personal esteem racial/ethnic and self-image that has been studied among the Asian Americans and the Hispanics. In addition, this research article finally concludes by showing the parallels that exist between the theories that deals with ethnicity and race.

Research Questions

            The research employed chiefly empirical evidence analysis and from the analyses, the researchers made some conclusions.

Method

The research employed empirical analysis of past theoretical models as its grounded theory in the research method design. The research pursued this core method in its data collection, as well as creation of parallels and paradigms.

Key Findings

The research article made a number of findings based on its analysis of theoretical models and existing literature on African American self-image. The key findings from the research are:

            Research Findings on Personal Self-Esteem among Hispanics and Asian Americans

            The research found that the Mexican American children have lower self-esteem as do the African Americans and Anglo-Americans, (Porter & Washington, 1993). Furthermore, the research further found that some studies reveal no major difference in the personal self-esteem among these groups. Other studies pointed out that Japanese and Korean Americans have poor personal esteem compared to the white or the blacks.

On the other hand, the research found a relationship in biculturalism and psychological adjustments among the Hispanic and Asian subgroups. Finally, under this category of research, it was determined that in overall, the Asian American children had lower personal esteem than that of Blacks, Anglos and Mexican Americans.

            Relationship between Personal Self-Esteem and Group   

The research found out that most of the paradigms in the ethnic discussion had a reciprocal relationship between personal self-esteem and race, (Porter & Washington, 1993). Furthermore, the research found that the ability to manage ethnic and racial discrimination is dependent on high self-esteem. Additionally, the research found out that a group image, which is positive, was generally seen to be a protective of the self-esteem. The research found also that research showed that the good group image among the Asian and Hispanic subgroups was closely related to their high personal self-esteem.

Qualitative Vs Quantitative Research And Their Strengths And Weaknesses

Introduction

A qualitative research is concerned with the investigative methods that are the participant observer, field, and anthropological, naturalistic and ethnographic research. Qualitative research focusses primarily on the data in the field. It is like the research method that explores the various topics given. It aims to give an understanding of various motivations, opinion and reasons regarding a particular topic. Qualitative research uses data collection methods that may be semi-structured or unstructured techniques. Some data collection methods include observations, interviews and focus groups.

An example of a qualitative research article is “Breaking down the barriers to cancer immunotherapy” (Puré, Allison & Schreiber, 2005).

Quantitative research involves variables that can be precisely and accurately measured. In quantitative research, the problem is viewed in terms of data, which is quantified numerical terms in solving the problem. Quantitative research quantifies variables, behaviors, opinions, and attitudes to name a few. It uses data that is measurable for fact formulation. The data collection methods have more structure. They include systematic observations, online polls, website interceptors, longitudinal studies and paper surveys to name a few.

An example of quantitative research in business is “By the Numbers: Total unaided awareness” (Hellebusch, 2006). Qualitative research focusses on the use of words while quantitative focusses on using numbers.

Qualitative Research Strengths

  1. The case can be used to provide an in-depth explanation of a certain phenomenon to the targeted audience.
  2. Can be used to determine the causes of a particular event.
  3. The case information concerning an individual can be provided by the study.
  4. Is effective in the in-depth study of phenomena especially when the number of cases is limited.
  5. Provides description and understanding of various experiences that people have regarding certain phenomena

Qualitative Research Weaknesses

  1. The findings may only relate to a few people and not everyone in general
  2. Quantitative prediction is difficult to make
  3. When using many participants, it becomes difficult to test theories and hypothesis
  4. Much time is used when collecting data than when one uses quantitative methods
  5. It takes a lot of time to analyses data

Quantitative Research Strengths

  1. Data collection is done quickly
  2. Data analysis is fast
  3. Generalization of data can be done if eh random samples are of a sufficient size.
  4. Provides precise numerical quantitative data.
  5. The analysis of data takes a shorter time
  6. It is efficient when the sample sizes are large.

Quantitative Research Weaknesses

  1. The researcher can miss confirmation bias by focusing more on testing his theory or hypothesis.
  2. The results may be too general and abstract or application, in particular, various individuals, situation or contexts.

Combining both in concurrent mixed design methods, help one type of data validate the other and hence increase effectiveness and precision of the study. Mixed research, in this case, involves the collection of data by using all procedures concerned with both qualitative and quantitative data. Since some disadvantages can be dealt with by the other method of research, using the two methods enhance the accuracy and precision the data collected.  Therefore, one form of data is validated using the other. The concurrent mixed method provides an avenue where data can be transformed and compared with the relevant questions.

Quantitative research will give more information that is needed in dealing with a business problem like finding new markets. Qualitative research enables one to access data that involves a lot of businesses especially in marketing that will help in determining the problem at hand. Going into the field may not provide enough information on the competition facing the business and the segments in the market. I would, therefore, focus on using the available data and coming up with various conclusions that will help find a concrete solution.

Which Research Method is Better? – Qualitative Or Quantitative

Generally, the two research techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. For instance, in quantitative research the use of larger samples and presence of less contact between the researcher and the interviewees makes its findings less biased, (McCusker & Gunaydin, 2014). Whereas the great deal of contact in qualitative research gives information that is subject to bias owing to the in-depth exploration. However, the findings in quantitative research are conclusive and can apply to the rest of the study population, while the presence of in-depth exploration in qualitative research, provide a better understanding of the phenomena. Therefore, a combination of both study techniques, other than choosing one based on its merits or demerits, provides a better method of conducting a study.

Qualitative Research

Qualitative research

Qualitative research is a method of societal inquest that emphases on the approach people make sense of their understanding and the world in which they live. A number of diverse methods exist within the broader context of this type of inquiry, and numerous of these share the similar objective such as understanding, describing and inferring social occurrences as observed by individuals, groups and cultures(Holloway & Wheeler, 2010). Investigators use qualitative methodologies to discover the behavior, feeling and experiences of society and what lies at the essential of their lives. For example, ethnographers’concentration on customs and culture; grounded theorists explore social progressions and relations, while phenomenologist contemplate and brightenan occurrence and define the life world(Van der Heide, et al., 2010).

The main features of qualitative research

Qualitative research from various fields share common features and follow similar procedures but different data collection and analysis methods could be applicable. Some of the similar elements include:

  • Qualitative research prioritize on the primacy of data. In simple terms, the theoretical framework is directly determined from the data.
  • Qualitative research requires the investigators to be context sensitive since the research is context-bound.
  • Qualitative research allows the researchers to engross themselves in the natural situation of the people whose performance and considerations they wish to explore.
  • Qualitative researchers put more emphasis on the emic viewpoint, the opinions of the people tangled in the research and their insights, importance and interpretations.
  • Qualitative research requires the application of thick description that involves description, analysis and interpretation, researchers are expected to go beyond the construction of the participants.

Qualitative Research Proposal – Assignment Instructions

Write up a qualitative research proposal on “The value of a second language requirement in school curricula” It should be 10 pages. First, you have all of the 7 sections. Second, you also have to prepare the literature review. This will make up the majority of the DRP Proposal.
  1. Introduction to the problem
  2. Statement of the problem
  3. Specific research question and sub questions to address the problem
  4. Significance of the study (Why this study is important; who will benefit?)
  5. Research design and methodology
  6. Organization of the Study
  7. Tentative Reference List and
  8. Literature Review

The value of a second language requirement in school curricula. The proposed research project surrounds the relatively recent implementation of required language courses in the New Jersey school system. For the past twelve years, students from grades kindergarten through twelfth have been required to study a language in addition to English with the aim of achieving a practical proficiency in the language. This proficiency is meant to include personal and professional communication skills, comprehension, and cultural awareness. The aim of this research project is to evaluate the proficiency level of students graduating from the New Jersey state secondary school system and determine whether those graduates who are competent in the language utilize their skills after graduation. By cross referencing assessment reports, personal interviews, and relevant employment data, the study will assess the usefulness of the curriculum in the post-graduate lives of students with six years of education in the language. The six year mark is necessary to ensure students have had sufficient exposure to the curriculum combined with six years post graduation experience which will be used to establish a cost benefit analysis for the language curriculum. The control group will be comprised of native English speakers who did not participate in the world languages curriculum. This research is critical to provide a baseline for this relatively new addition to the core curriculum as the standard has been in place twelve years, and a substantive review has yet to be completed. In addition the results shall hopefully provide indicators as to the broader question of whether acquiring a second language is of significant value in communications, and in particular, if there are benefits to certain languages or whether the advantages or disadvantages of the program are equally applicable regardless of language choice.

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Designing Qualitative Research

Introduction

Validity and reliability are means of communicating and demonstrating the research processes rigor and the research finding trustworthiness. Reliability in quantitative research refers to measurement consistency. Validity measures the level to which a measure accurately stands for the concept it claims to measure. There are internal and external validity in quantitative research. Internal validity handles the study outcome validity, and assists to lower other frequently reasons, unanticipated for these results. External validity defines the level in which a measure represents the measured concept accurately (Burkholder et al., 2016).  This paper evaluated validity and it use in quantitative research.

Read also Validity and Reliability – Compare and Contrast Essay

Explanation of Threat to Internal and External Validity in Quantitative Research

There are various internal and external threats to validity. Threats to internal validity include history which is events occurrence that could modify the study results, maturation which refers to any modifications which happen in the subject during the study that were not part of it and that would influence the results. Others include testing which associates with probable impacts of a pretest on participants’ performance in the posttest of a study, instrumentation which regards the impacts of the study outcome of the inconsistent employment of measurement instruments. Statistical regression describes the extreme scores tendency to move toward the subsequent retesting mean score (Punch, 2013).

Read also Sources of Bias for Quantitative and Qualitative Research

Others include mortality which describes the subjects’ loss from a study as a result of their original non-availability or future withdrawal from the research, and selection that regards the probability that study group might possess varying attributes and that those variations might impact the outcomes. Threats to external validity include interaction testing effect, interaction impacts of selection bias as well as the experimental treatment, testing interaction effect, interaction impacts of biases selection and the experimental treatment, experimental arrangements reactive impacts, and interference of multiple-treatment (Creswell, 2013).

Strategy to Mitigate Each Threat

To mitigate internal threats and to maximize the level of internal validity the researcher will need to standardize the states in which the research is conducted. This will minimize instrumentation and history threats. The research will also need to get more information regarding research study participants’ aids in reducing threats from selection and mortality. Acquiring more information on research study procedural details for instance when and where the research takes place will minimize instrumentation and history threats (Creswell, 2013). Another way includes selecting suitable research design which will control all other internal threats.

Read also Two Major Ways in Which Qualitative Research Differs From Quantitative Research

To mitigate and maximize threats to internal validity the researcher will require to employ research design which does not involve pretests and to select a design where by only a single treatment is allocated to every subject. Other measures include employing random assignment and selection participants and use a placebo group and control group. The researcher should also carefully define variables in a manner which is meaningful environments past that where the study is being carried out, and employment of blind procedures of data collection (Babbie, 2017).

Possible Ethical Issues in Quantitative Research and How it Might Influence the Design Decisions

The possible ethical issues that can be encountered in the quantitative research include adhering to the ethical requirements demanded while using human population such as ensuring consent, and data privacy. This may affect the validity of the data collected since in some researches the data accuracy can be affected by participants’ cautiousness and thus, blind data collection may be needed. This creates ethical issue and thus, impacting the research design.

Amenable Research Topic to Scientific Study in Quantitative Approach

An amenable research topic in quantitative scientific study refers to the agreeability of the research topic with the research approach or the research design. It measures how much the research topic represents the actual research activity (Punch, 2013).

Read also Is Qualitative Research Non-Scientific?

Conclusion

Validity is highly valued in quantitative research. There are two forms of validity which include external and internal validity. The two forms of validity contain threats which need to be handled to enhance a high level of validity in the research. The researcher should consider employing all right measures to ensure that all ethical research requirements have been met.

Read also Evaluation Of The Choice Of Design And Threats To Validity In A Quasi-Experimental Design

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