Cultural Safety Essay Instructions
The vision of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-2023 reads:
“The Australian health system is free of racism and inequality and all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have access to health services that are effective, high quality, appropriate and affordable” (Australian Government, 2013, p. 7).
Racism is a significant inhibitor to ‘closing the gap’ in health outcomes between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and other Australians (Murrie, 2017). For health professionals to be effective agents in realising the national vision, we are required to be culturally safe practitioners, who are literate in the dynamics of race and racism and importantly their impacts on the well-being of people we care for. Cultural safety must be realised at both the individual practice level and at the institutional level. Health professionals must also be knowledgeable of the historical and political factors that created and continue to maintain poor health outcomes experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. In this assessment you will be required to discuss the application of culturally safety to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ health and well-being context. You are also required to utilise the 5Rs Reflection Framework to reflect on your learning experience throughout the initial weeks of this unit.
Application of Culturally Safety to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ Health and Well-being Context
Personal Racism vs. System/Institutional Racism
Individual racism denotes the actions, attitudes, and beliefs of individual, which perpetuate or support racism in unconscious and conscious ways. Individual racism mostly happens during interpersonal interaction where an individual is able to bring personal beliefs, attitudes, assumption and behaviours in personal interaction. Institutional racism is general or specific instances of racial domination, discrimination, exploitation, and inequality in institution or organizational contexts such as the nation-state or labour market (Pearson, 2016).
Read also How Is Racism Explained From A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective?
Institutional racism specifically refers to the manners in which practices and policies of an institution create varying result for various ratio groups intentionally or unintentionally (Kelaher, Ferdinand & Paradies, 2014). The main difference between individual racism and institutional racism is that individual racism displays what is in a person, while institutional racism portrays rules made to govern an institution which end up creating results or benefits disparity among people of different races. The main similarity between the two is that they both result to discrimination of the minority groups in the society.
The Power of Dynamics Associated with the Concept of
Australia has been experiencing white supremacy since the colonial time where the indigenous community was massacred and highly reduced in population. The whiteness was then propagated in many ways including development of policies that favoured white people over indigenous communities, especially with regard to access of public services (Walton et al., 2018). White dominance is still deep-rooted in Australian culture, though it has been made extra invisible via its dominant position denial.
Read also Political Discrimination Faced by Indigenous People in Contemporary Australia
However, according to Wills (2012) whiteness as non-normative, subjective racialised class is only generally invisible to those that dwell in this power space. This simply means that indigenous people in the Australia do always feel the white supremacy while trying to go about their normal life routines, especially with relation to access to public services or facilities. There is white dominance in all sectors in the county and limiting chances for the indigenous people and aspects of racism, while interacting with whites in those sectors (Smith, 2015).
Concepts Cultural Safety vs. Cultural Competency
Cultural safety refers to an environment that is safe for individuals despite of who they are. It is an environment with no assault, denial or challenge of people identity, of who people are and what they require. Cultural safety is about shared knowledge, shared meaning, shared respect and experience of listening truly and learning with dignity as a group. Cultural competence is perceived as a set of corresponding policies, attitudes, and behaviours which come together in an agency, system, or amongst professionals and allows them to efficiently work in cross-cultural situations (Freeman et al., 2014).
Read also Cultural Competency for the Health Professional
Cultural competence is regarded as the systems’ ability to offer care to patients with different behaviours, beliefs and values, including modifying delivery to meet the linguistic, cultural and social needs of patients. A cultural competent care system incorporates and acknowledges the cross-cultural relations assessment, the culture importance, and vigilance to the dynamics, which yield from cultural differences, the cultural knowledge expansions and the services adaption to meet unique cultural needs (Kingsley et al., 2013). The level of cultural competence in an organization can be measures by the level of cultural safety experienced in that organization. This means, cultural safety is an outcome of a cultural competency in any organization. The two concepts are said to complete one another (Laverty, McDermott & Calma, 2017).
5Rs of Reflection Framework
The course prescribes two main reading one by Marrie
(2017) and the other by Australian Government (2013). The reading that grabs my
attention between the two is the Australian Government (2013) which is a health
plan for the minority groups in the country. The two Australian indigenous
groups; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander have been experiencing a high
level of discrimination with regard to access to quality and affordable health
care services. This has resulted to high level of health disparity between the
two groups and the rest of the population in the country. This article acts as
a ray of hope for the two groups. The article appeals to me more because it
demonstrates the government recognition of its past mistakes and their effects
and desire for change.
Enactment and Perpetuation of Institutional Racism throughout Australian’s History
The Australian indigenous groups have experienced a
long history of institutional inequality, which includes educational
inequality, healthcare inequality and employment inequality (Durey &
Thompson, 2012). There is a clear documentation of disparity between Australian
indigenous people mortality rates and that of other Australians. Indigenous
Australians are disadvantages across a range of health, economic and social
indicator (Cronin, 2017). They have been experiencing physical or verbal abuse
or discrimination in the housing, education, employment or health sectors
resulting to poor general health among the indigenous people (Australian Institute
of Health and Welfare, 2015). Institutional racism in Australia was
reported to take part in all sectors with indigenous Australians getting less
benefit from the countries laws and policies, compared to other Australians (Craven,
2016). They have also
been conditional on disparaging comments in both social and health contexts. As
a result, Aboriginal people experienced increasing problems accessing mainstream
healthcare as a result of racial attitudes of health practitioners,
discriminative health practices and policies and high cost of services. This
was highly witnessed until recently when health programs are structured
targeting indigenous people. Indigenous Australian regions have been
experiencing poor distribution of healthcare facilities and professionals,
which affects healthcare accessibility. There is also cultural challenge where
healthcare professionals are unable or refuse to integrate indigenous people
cultural aspects in treatment plan (Freeman et al.,
to Bodkin and Carlson (2016), the history of educational attitudes, programs
and policies targeting indigenous populaces has for most part been very
negative in its results and orientation. This history has created a tragic
legacy to educational opportunities and outcome of Aboriginal youths. Racist-inspired
generational policies resulted to intergenerational alienation and
underachievement (Lee, 2017). Actually, educational trends from the historical
glance are that the quality and aims of education has drastically differed for
non-indigenous and indigenous students (Jeffreys & Dogan, 2012). The
entrenched implication of these varying standards was directly associated with
the negative insolences of the non-indigenous education providers and the early
scientific, social and political attitude directed to the entire indigenous
culture. Although people may think that these approaches are not practiced
today, indigenous Australians has been experiencing continual resistance to
teaching about their traditional cultural identities, learning and values in
different indigenous education era in Australia. The historical policies
overarching theme in indigenous education were structured with intention of
erasing the visibility or/and existence of indigenous Australians (Mansell, 2016). Other than this,
there has been education coverage and quality disparity between aboriginal
people and the rest (Pearson,
2016). This makes it hard for most Aboriginal
youths to secure credible jobs in the government and well established private
sectors. White dominance in employment sectors results to high tendency of
development of employment policies favouring white Australians than indigenous
ones during recruitment (Cronin, 2015; Australian Human Rights Commission,
How Culturally Safe Nursing Practice Addresses
Personal and Institutional Racism
The model of cultural safety was created in the context of an indigenous health care and has been adopted within the wider framework of culturally diverse health care. Cultural safety focuses on directly addressing the impacts of colonialism in the principal health system, by centring on the degree of cultural safety experienced by the person seeking health care (Rowan et al., 2013). Culturally, safe health care setting is an environment that is safe to all patients. In this case, it is environments where Indigenous Australians are served without assault, denial or challenge of their identity, of what they need or who they are. It regards, shared meaning, shared respect, shared experience and knowledge of listening truly and learning collectively with dignity. This means that healthcare institutions adopt operation practices and policies that respect individual culture, that promote high level of equity, that ensure patient needs are prioritized and that ensure high level of accountability in provision of care. Nurses get to be more aware of their own identity and culture and how it influences their practices. This helps in recognition of similar and unique qualities of different cultural groups (Doutrich et al., 2012).
Read also Evolving Practice of Nursing and Patient Care Delivery Models
Engagement with indigenous Australian cultural groups
is domineering in the process of enhancing cultural consciousness and
developing collaborative healthcare programs. Cultural safety thus initiates
both individual and systemic change with the objective of assessing processes
of formation of identity. It also promotes awareness of personal identity among
health workers and effect on care they offer to indigenous Australians (Freeman et al., 2014). Measures like training
nurses on cultural safety enhance them in development of cultural of suitable
communication strategies, attitudes and behaviours, which lower the inequality
gaps in healthcare outcomes. Cultural safety in nursing also ensures culturally
suitable care that centres on cultural requirements of the patient, increasing
patient satisfaction and outcome (Bainbridge,
McCalman, Clifford & Tsey, 2015).
5R of Reflection Framework
Different engagement in this course has improved my
understanding of the life of Australian indigenous communities and the
challenges that they have been facing over other communities due to
discrimination. The recommended readings, videos and lectures have made me
learn that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people has been experiencing
health disparity compared to other Australians, mostly due to racial
discrimination. There has been individual and institutional racism enacted
against the aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. This
includes discriminative policies and practices that undermine their access to
quality care. Individual professional attitudes and behaviours have also added
to their misery. In this regard, the indigenous Australians have been
experience poor general health for quite a long time, among other social and
economic discrimination. I have also learnt that growing level of
discrimination and its negative effect on indigenous community health prompted the
need for cultural intervention in healthcare provision.
Going through this course I have come to learn that
cultural safety is the best intervention measure to improve the health
situation of indigenous people in Australia. Cultural safety involve being aware
of my own culture and how it influence my nursing practices especially among
patients of different culture. This makes me aware of cultural sensitive
things. Things that I would have wished my nurse considered while handling my
case, despite not being of my culture. Being cultural sensitive is likely to
change my attitude and behaviours toward indigenous patients by ensuring that I
treat them with respect, love and care. There has been other intervention in
the past. However, they were not highly effective simply because they did not
pay much attention to cultural safety. I have realized that cultural safety
influence individual and institutional behaviour towards indigenous community
and hence producing better results.
The reading materials have given me relevant knowledge
on how to improve the health situation of Aboriginal and Torres groups in
Australia. The video has made me realize how destructive my cultural
insensitive and discriminative acts and attitude has been to indigenous group.
This make me see the need to learn more about cultural competence and safety in
promoting equal treatment to all my patients in the future.
Basically, my behaviour in handling indigenous people
was highly influenced by my upbringing. There was white supremacy in my
upbringing making it hard to realize where I have applied negative attitude or
destructive behaviour. I also lacked knowledge on how my behaviour negatively
impacted indigenous people wellbeing.
I have realized the importance of having cultural
knowledge in nursing. This is the only way to ensure cultural safety among the
aboriginal people. This course has taught me the importance of being cultural
sensitive especially while handling indigenous people. I have learnt that the
system has been considerably unfair to aboriginals, making them suffer
unnecessarily. More need to be done to promote aboriginal and Torres healthcare
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