Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus PowerPoint Presentation

Introduction

  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common form of diabetes.
  • The condition is a worldwide pandemic, and affects about 10 percent of the population.
  • About a quarter of the population above 65 years have type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Diabetes mellitus type 2 is characterized by chronic impairment of carbohydrate metabolism and chronic hyperglycemia
  • It is non-insulin-dependent
  • Usually results from interaction of environmental and genetic factors.

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Epidemiology

  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a worldwide public health issue.
  • The rate of increase in the number of those affected continue to rise steadily in developed countries such Japan and USA.
  • As of 2015, close to 420 million people had diabetes type 2 worldwide (Forouhi & Wareham, 2019).

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Risk Factors

  • Chronic hypertension
  • Advancing age
  • Poor lifestyle and diet
  • Family History of diabetes

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Anatomy

  • Pancreas is an organ that lies below the stomach
  • The pancreas produces integral homes, insulin and glucagon, that are at the center of carbohydrate metabolism.
  • The beta cells are specifically crucial as they produce insulin that directly helps in utilization of glucose by peripheral organs

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Physiology

  • The dysfunction of beta cells leads to insulin resistance in peripheral tissues.
  • Insulin resistance leads to storage of excess glucose in form of fat
  • Compensatory insulin production leads to hyperglycemia, which also leads to further destruction of beta cells

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Signs and Symptoms

  • Increased thirst and Increased urination
  • Delayed wound healing
  • Recurrent infections
  • Hyperglycemia and increased incidences of ketoacidosis

Treatment

  • Lifestyle changes such as increased exercising.
  • Diet changes which focus on reducing carbohydrates and increasing proteins
  • Medications such as metformin, inulin, and thiazolidinediones, among others.

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Patient and Family Needs

  • A diabetes type 2 patient needs constant care to aid in compliance with drugs and recommended lifestyle changes.
  • Management of a diabetes patient may affect a family’s finances and lifestyle as well.
  • However, there should be a greater investment in family support in order to improve a patient’s condition (Ahmed & Yeasmeen, 2016)

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Conclusion

  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia
  • It is a common condition worldwide
  • The management of the condition relies on lifestyle changes and medications
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