- Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common form of diabetes.
- The condition is a worldwide pandemic, and affects about 10 percent of the population.
- About a quarter of the population above 65 years have type 2 diabetes mellitus
- Diabetes mellitus type 2 is characterized by chronic impairment of carbohydrate metabolism and chronic hyperglycemia
- It is non-insulin-dependent
- Usually results from interaction of environmental and genetic factors.
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- Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a worldwide public health issue.
- The rate of increase in the number of those affected continue to rise steadily in developed countries such Japan and USA.
- As of 2015, close to 420 million people had diabetes type 2 worldwide (Forouhi & Wareham, 2019).
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- Chronic hypertension
- Advancing age
- Poor lifestyle and diet
- Family History of diabetes
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- Pancreas is an organ that lies below the stomach
- The pancreas produces integral homes, insulin and glucagon, that are at the center of carbohydrate metabolism.
- The beta cells are specifically crucial as they produce insulin that directly helps in utilization of glucose by peripheral organs
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- The dysfunction of beta cells leads to insulin resistance in peripheral tissues.
- Insulin resistance leads to storage of excess glucose in form of fat
- Compensatory insulin production leads to hyperglycemia, which also leads to further destruction of beta cells
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Signs and Symptoms
- Increased thirst and Increased urination
- Delayed wound healing
- Recurrent infections
- Hyperglycemia and increased incidences of ketoacidosis
- Lifestyle changes such as increased exercising.
- Diet changes which focus on reducing carbohydrates and increasing proteins
- Medications such as metformin, inulin, and thiazolidinediones, among others.
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Patient and Family Needs
- A diabetes type 2 patient needs constant care to aid in compliance with drugs and recommended lifestyle changes.
- Management of a diabetes patient may affect a family’s finances and lifestyle as well.
- However, there should be a greater investment in family support in order to improve a patient’s condition (Ahmed & Yeasmeen, 2016)
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- Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia
- It is a common condition worldwide
- The management of the condition relies on lifestyle changes and medications