Article Critique – A Randomized Controlled Trial Of The Effects Of Nursing Care Based On Watson’s Theory Of Human Caring On Distress, Self-Efficacy And Adjustment In Infertile Women

This paper critiqued article “A Randomized Controlled Trial Of The Effects Of Nursing Care Based On Watson’s Theory Of Human Caring On Distress, Self-Efficacy And Adjustment In Infertile Women.” By Ilkay, et al., (2013). The aims of this article were to evaluate the effects of nursing care Based on the theory of human caring on distress caused by infertility, perceived self-efficacy and adjustment levels

  • Does the research report clearly describe a theoretical or conceptual framework to guide the study? If yes, complete questions 2 and 3


  • Evaluate whether the report adequately describe the link between the theory/CF and the research study?

The article clearly outlined the connection between the theory the research in the sense, the theory emphasized the need understand that patients should not be treated as objects that can be fixed by repair. The theory focuses on nursing paradigms and human (Ilkay, et al., 2013). The conceptual framework of Watson’s theory is the process infertile patients goes through while undergoing treatment. These processes include caring-healing modalities, caring occasions, caring moments, the transpersonal caring and caritas process. The article emphasized the benefits associated with the theory of human caring on nursing care. According to this article, the application of the concept of theory of human caring in nursing practice brings more efficiency and awareness, thus improving care outcome. Therefore, the link between Watson theory of human caring and this article was the improvement of the care outcome

  • What purpose does the theory serve in the study (e.g., development of instruments, identification of independent and/or dependent variables, Other, None?).

The Watson’s Theory of Human Caring served as a development of instrument in this study because the author planned nursing care based on this theory. For instance, the study was designed to be executed in six sessions in the infertility treatment process and each of the session was designed in accordance with the improvement process selected from the Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. The first phase of the study was the internalization and examination of the Watson’s Theory of Human Caring prior to adapting and putting it into the practice. The study includeed the 10 caritas processes:

  • Altruistic values and loving kindness
  • Faith, hope and honor
  • Being sensitive to self and other
  • Helping, trusting, caring relationship
  • Promoting and accepting feelings
  • Problem-solving methods
  • Teaching and learning
  • Creating a healing environment
  • assisting with human needs
  • Openness to mystery and allowing miracles.
  • Does the researcher clearly tie the findings of the study back to the framework at the end of the report?

At the end of the article, the author clearly tied the findings of the study back to the frame work by stating that it was first time Watson’s Theory of Human Caring was used in the provision of nursing care to women with infertility in randomized controlled trials. The finding showed a positive effect on the adjustment to infertility in women, perceived infertility self-efficacy and distress. This is clear indication that planning nursing care in according with the Watson’s Theory of Human Caring is very effective.

Ethical Considerations

            Nursing research like any other scientific research should be done in accordance with ethical guidelines. These ethical guidelines provide a framework on how data should be collected. In research that involves human subjects such as the article under study, it is important that data collection seeks to protect rather than harm the study participants (Montalvo & Larson, 2014). In the article, (Arslan-Özkan, Okumuş & Buldukoğlu, 2013) conducted research among women and there was no physical harm subjected to the respondents. Although the researchers did not harm the research participants, the article does not expressly outline any steps that were taken to remove or prevent harm or minimize discomfort.

            The study sought to implement and investigate the effect of Watson’s Theory of Caring among infertile women in Turkey. The benefits of the study outweigh the costs and any potential risks or discomfort to the research participants. Given that the authors point that there was lack of clear framework of application of Watson’s caring theory in treatment of infertile women, the potential benefits of the study are great (Arslan-Özkan, Okumuş & Buldukoğlu, 2013). In addition, the authors assert that infertility affects close to10-15% of the population (pp. 1802). This outlines the importance of the study against the potential risks, discomfort and costs.

            The authors pointed that informed consent was sought from the research participants before the research, through the informed consent form. However, there was no clear description on how the informed consent was sought from the research participants. The research was approved by the university research ethics committee and the necessary corporate approvals were obtained.

Method of Data Collection

            The research method that was employed in data collection was interviews. According to the authors, the demographic data varied as the study sample included women aged between 1& 45 (Arslan-Özkan, Okumuş & Buldukoğlu, 2013). In order to ensure that the appropriate data was collected, the researchers individualized the interviews in order to meet the personal needs of the participants. The interviews were appropriately employed based on how they were designed and administered by the researchers. The data that was collected included the participant data on fertility, sociodemographic characteristics, and data on how the participants perceived their self-efficacy.             The researchers provided information that the study collected its data from two groups, the control and the treatment group. The data was collected through structured interviews that were administered by trained nurses in the university infertility centre.  In the research, the authors point that the interviewer or the investigator was the intervention provider, who are the RNs in the infertility centre. In order to ensure the RNs had adequate preparation and training, the researchers selected them based on the attributes that are described in Watson’s caring theory, which included empathy, listening, touching, motivation, encouragement, empowerment, and positive thinking among other attributes. The data that was being collected was qualitative and the approach employed by the researchers was adequate and appropriate.

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