According to Lauritsen, Heimer and Lynch (2009), there are more violent male offenders than violent female offenders. This is one fact that still remains undisputed by criminologists. The Uniform Crime Report arrest data indicates that the rate at which males commit violent crimes is higher than that of females. For instance, Greenfeld and Snell (1999) document that only 14 percent of violent offenders in the United States were females while approximately 76 percent were males. There are several factors which contribute to a higher number of male violent offenders than female violent offenders. According to Daly (1996), biological, social, environmental, and psychological factors contribute to a higher violent crime rates among males than females.
There are more violent male offenders than violent female offenders due to a number of biological factors. In order to explain why females commit less violent crimes than males, Cesare Lombroso conducted a study on the bones and skull of female criminals. Lombroso also compared the biological differences between criminal and non-criminal females, as well as the variations between female and male offenders. In his conclusion, Lombroso stated that male criminals have biological characteristics that are similar to those of inferior animals. For this reason, males are more likely to commit violent crimes than females. Another theorist, WI Thomas assumes that females commit less violent crimes than males due to their passivity and inferiority. Daly (1996) believes that females are genetically different from males, with the males possessing unique biological characteristics that influence them to commit violent crimes.
Social factors also contribute to more violent male offenders than violent female offenders. According to Daly (1996), human beings strive to gain new experiences, obtain security, and gain recognition. As males interact with other people in the society, they always believe that they can obtain all that they need only through violence. On the contrary, women always try to remain obedient and submissive as they continue to associate with others in the society. As a result, men happen to commit more violent offenses than females. In reality, women have equal opportunities to commit crime as men, but they are limited by other commitments such as employment and family responsibilities. These restrict women from engaging in criminal behaviors as men do.
Various environmental factors drive men into committing violent crimes at a higher rate than females. For instance, men react violently to unappealing environments while females are able to adapt to various issues in their immediate environments. Hence, females turn to other activities such as prostitution as an alternative to violent crime (Greenfeld and Snell, 1999).
Many scientists believe that psychological differences between males and females explain why there are more violent male offenders than violent female offenders. Current research reveals that males have a smaller and shallower limbic system than females. For this reason, women are better than men in taking care of their feelings. The females can bond faster with others than males. Since men find it difficult to bond and get connected with others, they have problems controlling their feelings especially when they are angered. This influences them to commit more violent crimes than females (Lauritsen, Heimer and Lynch, 2009).
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