From the perspective of a priest in ancient Israel, what does the blood of the sin offering in Leviticus 16 and why can it do it?
The priest according to Leviticus 16 was to come before the lord to offer an atonement for himself and his household together with the children of Israel. Since the priest was to enter into the most holy place at a specified period, he was not allowed to come in as he pleased. In this case if the priest came in when he not obtained atonement for his sins he would have died. The blood from the sin offering especially the bull was to be offered by Aaron for himself and his household to atone for their sins and to further ensure that he did not die when he entered into the holy of holies. Aaron as a priest further had to offer the goat offering whose blood was sprinkled on the altar to atone for the people’s sin.
Therefore, there were two instances of the blood of the sin offering which was sprinkled on the altar. One was specifically for the priest and his household especially those that worked with him at the altar while the second one involved the atonement of the people of Israel especially in atoning for their sin, which resulted from rebellion and uncleanliness of the Israelites. The blood of sin offering cleanses the sinner from his confessed sins especially together with those of the priest. The blood was to cleanse the sinner form the sins he had done. To deal with the various sins that the people had committed an animal was to be offered and the blood atoned for the sin committed. Atonement was further made for the altar where Aaron had to take the blood of the sin offering, both of the bull and goat and sprinkle it on the altar. As such, the blood was to cleanse the altar concerning the uncleanness of the children of Israel. The blood was therefore for the atonement of the altar, tent of meeting and the most holy place.