The study investigated the media coverage of Boston and distress it increased or prompted near the bombing. The central issue was whether the repetitive exposure contributed to acute stress in the vicinity and the further comparison between direct exposure and media exposure among the residents near and at a distance from the bombing. The study found that the repeated media exposure contributed more to acute stress than direct exposure.
The article provides valuable information on the impact of exposure both direct and indirect through the media and, therefore, had its focus on the impact the explosion had on the people in term of increasing acute stress. As such, it is a reliable and useful article in gauging the aftermath effects of the bombing on the people in terms of acute stress. Acute stress as put forth in the article shoes the various undesirable effects of the bombing and is useful in research.
Simon, J. D. (2013). Lone wolf terrorism: Understanding the growing threat.
The article further looks at lone wolf terrorism with specific interest in the use of the internet in propagating the vice. It discusses the motivations and background of the lone terrorists and why few women have been lone terrorists while organized groups have many women. Furthermore, the paper looks at the why the lone terrorists have been son innovative and creative together with the impact of the internet in forming such groups. More information is given on the issue of lone terrorism and the background of the individuals, which further helps examine the Boston Marathon terrorism.
Learning from the study helps understand the individuals who were involved in the Boston Marathon bombings since they were not related to any terrorist groups. In addition, the articles gives more information on how they have been propagating and trained on how to carry out such terrorist acts together with their motivation.
Kaplan, J., Lööw, H., & Malkki, L. (2014). Introduction to the Special Issue on Lone Wolf and Autonomous Cell Terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 26(1), 1-12.
The article looks at the issue of lone wolf terrorism concerning to the various terrorists who act alone in committing terrorism. The lone wolves are usually part of cells and, thus, act alone and ensure that their activities are distinct from the cell. The article is important in that it helps bring forth the issue of individuals who act as cells and propagate terrorist acts like the bombings that are planned over time before they are carried out. The one wolf terrorism thus helps greatly in determining how the Boston Marathon was initiated and further showing the individuals who were linked to the terrorist acts.
Marvel, J. D. (2014). The Boston Marathon Bombings: Who’s to Blame and Why It Matters for Public Administration. Public Administration Review, 74(6), 713-725.
The article looks at the governing authority’s especially senior administrators and politicians on how they handled the Boston Marathon and who should have been blamed for the failure in preventing the attack. Administrators have a sway on the public opinion and trust especially about determining who failed in presenting the attack. It shows how democrats and republicans view the whole situations and who is to blame.
Public administration, as the article puts it, forms an important part of dealing with the debacle. The article points out faults and various blames to specific security agencies including the FBI, who should have acted and prevented the bombing. Therefore, the influential administrators help in determining how the public should view the bombings. As such, the administrators should ensure that they do not carry out a blaming process that will increase public panic and, therefore, the article is important in showing various views in the public domain associated with the bombing.
Becker, M. (2014). Explaining lone wolf target selection in the United States. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 37(11), 959-978.
The paper investigates the various lone wolf attacks that have happened in the United States. It looks at 84 incidents involving lone terrorists and finds out their patterns. The study focusses on the various locations and targets where the attacks have happened. The study has found out that most of the lone wolf attacks happen among civilians in common areas. The article provides valuable information on the patterns of the targets. It is thus beneficial in providing more information that can help in creating solution for discovering likely target. The article is further important in providing more information on related bombings to the Boston Marathon especially those that occurred in common civilian surroundings related to the Boston Marathon bombing.
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