Evaluation designs are verified by the choice employed to determine a control/comparison group or a group of non-participants within a project or a group. This comparison or control group can be possibly assigned to same target group, though for the fact that its members do not take part within the program or receive the intervention. However, the estimated implication on the other hand can be derived through estimation and also by comparing the ranks of healthiness between control/comparison groups and the targeted group (Nachmias & Nachmias, 2006). Otherwise, this assignment is aimed at providing clear annihilation concerning descriptive form of design through providing its validity, threats to validity as well as determining rationale behind competence of this method through referring to the context, ‘Research Methods in the Social Sciences’.
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Generally, descriptive design is deemed as a scientific method involving observing and describing the actions of a subject without pressurizing it any manner. This design is commonly used by diverse scientific-based disciplines, particularly psychology and social science, where they use this method to harness the general overview of the subject. Majority of the researchers have been confirmed to prefer this method due to various reasons. Foremost, it observes the subject in an entirely unchanged and natural environment. For example, people are enabled to study a certain tribe without interfering with their normal activities. Also, this design is often applied as a pre-cursor toward quantitative research designs, hence facilitating the general overview to provide some valuable pointers hence determining the specific variable requiring being tested quantitatively (Nachmias & Nachmias, 2006).
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Actually, the descriptive design is comprised with diverse forms of validity which are distinctive in their nature as discussed below. Foremost, statistical conclusion validity stands for inferences concerning whether it is sensible to assume co-variation provided within a specified alpha level as well as obtained variances. Actually, this form of soundness is aimed at ensuring that the study has resulted to good statistical conclusion as far as variables relations are concerned (Nachmias & Nachmias, 2006). The second factor is internal validity and when a study lacks it; then it will be difficult to make effect or cause statements concerning the research, hence making the study be descriptive rather than casual. Moreover, construct validity is targeted at ascertaining that researchers has evaluated the construct they are supposed to evaluate. Precisely, suitable construct validity guarantees that Construct A and Construct B are having causal relationship. On the other hand, external validity addresses the issue concerning being capable of generalizing the outcomes of the study through considering persons, places and times (Neuman, 2005).
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Otherwise, assessment of validity in any given study is crucial activity since it facilitates competency, quality and reliability of conducted research. Foremost, the research must ensure that the research is peer reviewed by experienced researchers who are contained with relevant expertise hence pledging that the research outcomes are of high quality. Moreover, it is critical to determine whether the research’s quality is allowing evaluation based on the provided information. This can be made possible through ascertaining that the study is comprised with description about population involved, explanation of used process, definition of core concepts and variables, descriptive statistics concerning key variables, and description of the analytic methods. Additionally, the evaluation should also determine the potential threats of the study and providing effectual and efficient means for cumbering them. While summing up, the information required to assess study valid includes the study review information; determining limitations within the research and also checking whether the investigators have stated any probable challenges to be encountered in course of the research (Taylor & Bogdan, 2008).
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