When attempting to accurately comprehend neurotransmission and how a neuronal impulse is ultimately responsible for creating a series of events well within the neuron, it would be imperative to develop a general overview of some major and basic constituents of the central nervous system (CNS). We can begin this process by evaluating the CNS using everyday examples encountered frequently in today’s fast-paced urban environment. If the central nervous system was a construction site, then neurons are the bricks and serve the all-important role as the basic building blocks.
How A Neuronal Impulse Creates A Cascade Of Events To Occur Within The Neuron And Between Neurons
The actual origin of a neuronal impulse can be traced back to the action potential displayed along a neuron’s axon. As with every major event in life, an accompanying reaction is bound to be witnessed after clear evidence of action potential. Synapses then become a conduit through which the action potential generated and propagated by a neuron is transported courtesy of neurotransmitter (Rakonczay, 2017). Communication is at the very core of neuronal function within the central nervous system. Neurotransmitters, therefore, regularly share encoded messages with each other, before binding to other neuronal receptors. Receiving neurons, in particular, are known for this unique property and are aptly referred to as presynaptic neurons.
Moreover, depending on the receiving cell, the aforementioned signal may go on to constrain receiving cell based on the actual property of specified receptor in question. Such scenarios also inhibit communication between neurons and optimal functioning of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. It is also noteworthy to acknowledge that neuronal impulse transmission is a chemical process culminating in the release of specific neurotransmitters and signal transduction cascade. This remains one of the most crucial elements of this entire process given that the series of accompanying molecular events are eventually responsible for neurotransmission.Top of Form
The catalyzation of protein phosphorylation by way of protein kinase is also an important aspect of signal transduction and operationalizes cellular response. This also creates a unique opportunity for the activation of stimuli-detecting/ ligand-binding proteins which eventually create a biochemical cascade. Additionally, they form networks and communication pathways as a roadmap for future attempts at cellular coordination. Ligand with the Ligand-ion channels then functions as messengers well capable of activating secondary effectors (Potter et al., 2018). As a major signal transduction pathway, ligands also play a monumental role in the activities and events occurring within a cell. Their solubility has also been a major advantage since most ligands maximize this property fully by attaching on cell membranes for survival.
Likewise, the G protein-coupled receptors eventually play a crucial role as leading transmembrane proteins often associated with heterotrimeric G proteins. An inactive G protein normally kicks off the process of process transduction. Receptor changes normally occur once GPCR associates directly with a ligand. Additionally, agonists, partial agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists play an invaluable (Martin, 2017). Agonists, for instance, bind to receptors and set off a chain reaction eventually responsible for a biological response during signal transduction. Partial agonists, on the other hand, promotes this highly sophisticated process by acting as an antagonist when in the presence of a full agonist. Yet, the action of a ligand binding with receptors in active confirmation has long been the primary role of inverse agonists in signal transduction.