Operations Management Concepts: Wisdom Business Academy’s Case Study

Introduction

Operations management relates to the designing, controlling, and overseeing production processes along with the redesigning of commercial operations in the development of given services or goods (Boyer & Verma 2010). In organizations like Wisdom Business Academy, operations management entails the duty of making certain that the operations are effective, that only the required resources are used, and that client requirements are met. The principal objective of Wisdom Business Academy is to offer CIMA examination candidates academic aid so that they are confident especially when facing CIMA examinations. Presently, CIMA considers Wisdom Business Academy, which now enrolls at least 5000 students yearly, as one of its quality partners. Recently, Wisdom Business Academy got the ISO 9001:2008 Quality Accreditation according to Wisdom Business Academy (2015).Wisdom Business Academy projects itself as having programs that are run by a perfect lecturer panel.

From 2002, Wisdom Business Academy has remained a significant player in CIMA education within Sri Lanka. Over the years, it has experienced marked growth in its student population, compelling it to invest heavily in the expansion of its facilities in Colombo. In mid-2004, CIMA awarded it the status of CIMA Quality Partner. It got the ISO 9001:2008 accreditation for its Quality Management System (QMS) around the same time. It seeks to graduate management accountants who are as well altogether better, more engaging, and richer beings. It has put in place systems aimed at offering it students a social-edge via sports, CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) activities, quiz and debate programs, and social functions such as trips and dances (Wisdom Business Academy 2015).

Over the years, Wisdom Business Academy has sought to bolster its operations management areas, processes, and activities. The areas include quality management, demand forecasting, risk management, and global operations management. As noted earlier, Wisdom Business Academy got the ISO 9001:2008 Quality Accreditation in 2004. It seeks to graduate quality students who compete effectively at the international, as well as local, levels (Sunday Times 2010a, par.1). It projects the hundreds of its students who manage 3As in national Advanced Level examinations as a proof of the quality of its systems (par.3). Wisdom Business Academy is keen on ensuring that it globalizes its operations. Indeed, Wisdom Business Academy markets itself as a center for preparing students to shake and move global business (Sunday Times 2010b).

Another operations management area that gets considerable attention at Wisdom Business Academy is demand forecasting. The management of Wisdom Business Academy is always keen on forecasting the future growth of its student population so as to put in place the facilities required by the growing population. For instance, on the basis of the forecasting, Wisdom Business Academy transferred its No.15B Station Road-located premises at a cost of at least US$ 1 million according to Wisdom Business Academy (2015, par.2-3). Wisdom Business Academy has put in place various risk management measures, especially to address the risks that its student population faces. The risks include health problems, property loss owing to fire outbreaks, burglaries as well as identity theft.

Outline of the Purpose of the Case Study

            The researcher settled for Wisdom Business Academy for the case study since he spent considerable time there as a student. Owing to the researcher’s experiences at the academy, he felt that it provides ample opportunities for exploring various operations management areas and their underlying theories. As noted earlier, the areas include quality management, demand forecasting, risk management, and global operations management (Boyer & Verma 2010, p. xvii).

The Wisdom Business Academy case study allows for the examination of how operations management can be used as a tool for improving organizational efficiency and utility. In Wisdom Business Academy, operations management considerations typify each of its activities and programs, with the aim of ensuring that it provides own students with holistic CIMA education (Wisdom Business Academy 2015). The case study helps readers in examining some of the principal operations management principles. It helps those who read it make out, describe, as well as solve, ineffective organizational processes. Notably, at Wisdom Business Academy, there are numerous organizational processes that can be enhanced through the application of particular operations management principles. This paper highlights a number of those processes.

The researcher selected the Wisdom Business Academy case study since it offers a wide range of human capital, strategic, financial, operational, and technological perspectives relating to operations management. The integration of such perspectives is important in reducing organizational costs, enhancing organizational efficiency, and enhancing organizations’ bottom lines (Chary 2009, chap.13; National Research Council, Second Strategic Highway Research Program & Parsons Brinckerhoff 2011, pp.5-7).

Theoretical Frameworks

  1. Demand Forecasting

In organizations, demand forecasts are essential for a number of reasons. First, there are critical for decisions relating to supply chains. Second, they are employed in the designing, planning, as well as operation, of supply chains. Third, with respect to production processes, they are used for aggregate inventory planning, control as well as scheduling. Fourth, with respect to marketing, they are useful in introducing and promoting new products and allocating the related staff-forces (Chase 2013, fig.4.2). Fifth, they inform finance-related equipment and plant investment budgets and decisions. Sixth, they help in personnel planning.

Demand forecasts are defined by various characteristics. They may go wrong at times. Consequently, rigorous forecast presentations ought to include measures of the corresponding forecast errors and the expected forecast values according to Goh and Law (2003, pp.511-512). Any long-term demand forecast usually has less accuracy than any corresponding short-term forecast. Aggregate demand forecasts are commonly more precise that disaggregate demand forecasts.

Organizations, including Wisdom Business Academy use different demand forecast models, or methods. Some of the methods are qualitative: prediction markets, unaided judgment, and Delphi. These are hinged on human opinion along with judgement. Like prediction markets, the Delphi approach is structured and entails the aggregation of different opinions from diverse groups. Even then, unlike the Delphi approach, the predication market approach offers subjects participation incentives, motivate them to partake in the attendant surveys for long, and motivate them to make known their convictions. As well, the prediction market approach allows for the instantaneous integration of emerging information into already completed forecasts. The Delphi demand forecasting approach adopted by some organizations, such as Wisdom Business Academy, motivates subjects to make known their reasoning, makes it easy to uphold confidentiality, and takes a short time if the requisite experts are available.

All qualitative demand forecasting models have various downsides. They anchor events and give room to selective perception. When the events are anchored, demand forecasters let them impact on perceptions regarding prospective events. The selective perception portends that forecasters pay no attention to pertinent information that they may not concur with. The quantitative demand forecasting models include the time series model, the adaptive model, the causal model, and the simulation model (Ross 2004, pp.143-149). These models help addresses the weaknesses defining the qualitative demand forecasting models according to Tewari and Singh (1996, p.85) and Vasigh, Fleming and Tacker (2013, pp.289-295).

  1. Different Models of Quality

Quality management makes certain that given services, organizations, or products are consistent. The core components of quality management are quality improvement, assurance, control, and planning. Quality management focuses on both product quality and the means of attaining it. Consequently, quality management models employ quality assurance, as well as process control, and product to realize constant quality. The principles on which the different models are founded typify almost each one of them. The commonest of the principles are leadership, client focus, people involvement, process approach, system approach, persistent improvement, factual decision formulation, and mutually advantageous supplier relationships (Charantimath 2006).

The quality models, or standards, include the QMS, which ISO developed in mid-1987. ISO has developed different standards that are applied in diverse industries. The industries in which they are applied are determined by the processes or activities going on in them. The processes may relate to design work, service delivery, or production. ISO, or QMS, standards, including the ISO 9001:2008 quality standard that Wisdom Business Academy was accredited with, are reviewed regularly (Wisdom Business Academy 2015). The standards are aimed at certifying organizational processes and systems as opposed to services or products.

Another common quality model is the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), which was developed by the SEI (Software Engineering Institute). The institute uses the model in assessing its processes and improving its methods. The model is administered, as well as marketed by the Carnegie Mellon University. It is one of obligated by many federal contracts and defense programs in the US, particularly with respect to software development according to Charantimath (2006). It has three constellations: service and product development; service delivery, management, and establishment; along with service acquisition.

Other common quality models include those for automobile industries, including TS 16949, QS-9000, VDA, AVSQ, and EAQF. Other common quality models include the EFQM Excellence Award, the Deming-Award, and the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. Organizations should adopt as many of the relevant quality models and the related QMS as is practical since they afford businesses many advantages, including increased efficiency, improved staff morale, global recognition, and process improvement according to Charantimath (2006).

  • Risk Management

Risk management entails the making out, appraisal, as well as prioritization, of specified risks. The ISO 31000 standard defines risk management as the uncertainty’s impact on particular objectives tagged along by the coordination and economical utilization of particular resources to reduce, control, and monitors the likelihood and consequences of inopportune events or to optimize the actualization of the corresponding opportunities. Risk managers seek to ensure that the endeavor defining business aims is not deflected by uncertainty (Dorfman 2007).

Ideally, risk managers use prioritization procedures in cases with the risks that may result into the greatest impact or loss and that with the highest likelihood of happening being dealt with first. The risks that may result into the smallest impact or loss and that with the most limited likelihood of happening are dealt last. Practically, the procedures for appraising overall risks are challenging. Consequently, balancing resources get employed in the mitigating between varied risks with different likelihoods of happening and different possible impacts (Antunes & Gonzalez 2015).

Commonly, organizations use a five-element risk management model, or method. The first element is the making out and characterization of threats. The second element is the assessment of critical assets’ vulnerability to particular threats. The third element is the determination of the threats, which means the establishment of the anticipated probability, as well as impact, of particular attacks on particular assets. The fourth element is making out of how the risks can be lessened. The last element is the prioritization of the measures for reducing the risks in line with strategy (Lee & Carter, 2012). Organizations should take into account all these elements when developing their risk management plans (RMPs) according to Dorfman (2007).

When developing a RMP, an operations manager should select suitable countermeasures or controls to determine every possible risk. The suitable management levels should be engaged to approve the proposed ways of risk mitigation. For example, risks relating to an organization’s image ought to have the organization’s top manager make decisions about it while the computer virus risks may only warrant attention from the organization’s IT technicians (Antunes & Gonzalez 2015; Dorfman 2007). The implementation of RMPs is done in line with the planned procedures for reducing the related risks’ effects.

After the implementation of the RMPs, they should be reviewed and evaluated regularly to bolster their effectiveness, utility, and responsiveness (Dorfman 2007; Lee & Carter 2012). Apart from the formulation, implementation, review, and strengthening of RMPs to check on organizational risks, business continuity plans (BCPs) can be put in place to address the effects of recognized residual risks (Antunes & Gonzalez 2015). The utility of BCPs is especially high with respect to digital risks, which stem from heightened reliance on IT systems as well as digital processes (Dorfman 2007; Flyvbjerg & Budzier 2011, pp.601-602).

  1. Global and International Issues

With ongoing transformation of national economies into a single global economy, it is becoming quite clear that it is essential that operations management be leveraged on to address emerging globalization-related issues (Flynn, Morita & Machuca 2011). The issues include that specially trained employees are required to manage operations globally. The employees get training that make them adept in serving as global logistics managers, global supply chain managers, global purchasing managers, general operations managers, or global operations research analysts (Boutellier, Gassmann & Zedtwitz 1999; Loader 2006). Notably, local management is rather different global management. The latter relates to the practices and techniques applied in directing, as well as controlling, global organizations. Consequently, it covers every concern arising as an effect of global, as well as international, strategies according to Flynn, Morita & Machuca (2011).

Global, as well as international, management can helpfully be reflected upon from the viewpoint of the diverse organizational functions: support functions like legal issues and RD (research and development); finance; human resources; production or operations; or marketing. From a perspective that is international, they functions and related functional areas will be typified by more intricate issues than are experienced in any particular country (Flynn, Morita & Machuca 2011).

Of the commonest concern relating to global, as well as international, operations management is how to strike a viable balance, or equilibrium, between local and global. Flynn, Morita and Machuca (2011) points out that quite few organizations actual have global strategies although very many organizations have operations in markets that are spread across the world. Numerous organizations, including numerous established multinational businesses, have marked presence in particular regions but remain underrepresented in many other regions. For instance, even though Cadbury is deemed to be a highly established multinational business and an international brand, it is only especially strong in Commonwealth economies.

Even though Mars Wrigley is deemed to be a highly established multinational business and an international brand, it is only especially strong in North American economies. Mars Wrigley is markedly underrepresented in South America, Asia, and the Scandinavian region. Cadbury, Mars Wrigley, and other companies that are strong in some markets but quite weak in others should consider the development of dissimilar strategies for the different markets or local product variations (Boutellier, Gassmann & Zedtwitz 1999; Loader 2006).

Such organizations may require following a product standardization strategy and a product customization strategy simultaneously. The mix of strategies is necessary to ensure that the companies conform to local tastes as well as national legal requirements while also reaching out to the global market. The standardization approach brings about scale and scope economy in RD and production as well as leads to savings in various cost areas like production sourcing and marketing. As well, the standardization approach is associated with increased responsiveness to the servicing of spare parts, reduced inventory, common operating processes and training standards, and easy satisfaction of markedly technical specifications (Loader 2006). The customization approach helps suffice differing client sophistications and needs, varying product usage conditions, high competence levels in local regions to actualize desired changes, and the applicable statutory requirements (Lawrence & Rosenblatt 1992).

Another common global, as well as traditional, issue relating to operations management is how to develop effective global strategies (Lawrence & Rosenblatt 1992). Flynn, Morita and Machuca (2011) process a particular model for the development of effective global strategies. Elementarily, the model commences by appraising every market that an organization is already present, or engaged, without a comprehensive international strategy. Besides, the organization ought to start considering the prospects across the global market for its product offerings in general terms according to Flynn, Morita and Machuca (2011).

Application of the Theory

  1. Different Models of Quality

As noted earlier, in mid-2004, CIMA awarded Wisdom Business Academy the status of CIMA Quality Partner. It got the ISO 9001:2008 accreditation for its Quality Management System (QMS) around the same time. Wisdom Business Academy projects the high number of own students who manage 3As in Advanced Level examinations as a proof of the quality of its systems (Sunday Times 2010b). The accreditations portend that the academy has runs on a QMS relating to the CIMA Quality Partner standards and an ISO QMS. The two QMS help ensure that the education services it offers are consistent. The QMS focuses on both services quality and the means of attaining it according to Charantimath (2006). While these two QMS help ensure that the education services it offers are consistent, they have different utilities.

The CIMA Quality Partner standards, unlike the ISO 9001:2008 standards, are not globally recognized. That means the former help Wisdom Business Academy attain industry recognition and not global recognition. ISO standards and QMS are recognized internationally as being offered by a leading agency, or authority, regarding quality management. ISO is widely recognized as a global quality management mark. It makes businesses come off as trustworthy and reliable especially when they are exporting globally. ISO accreditations help businesses establish credence within the global commercial arena. To add to its global recognition as a leading educational brand, Wisdom Business Academy should adopt other globally recognized quality models on top of the present one, the ISO 9001:2008 QMS. Wisdom Business Academy should adopt as many of the relevant quality models and the related QMS as is practical since they afford organizations many advantages, including increased efficiency, improved staff morale, global recognition, and process improvement according to Charantimath (2006).

If Wisdom Business Academy adopts more of the relevant, universally recognized quality models, it will further boost its employees’ morale further. According to Gifford (2007), factors like management commitment to quality motivate staff. The presence of many globally recognized quality models in an organization illustrate to employees that the roles they play in it affect both quality and the organization’s general success. If Wisdom Business Academy adopts more of the models, it will experience increased efficiency and client satisfaction. For instance, if Wisdom Business Academy implements the ISO 9001: 2015 quality model, or system, it will have ensured client satisfaction since the system supports organizations’ commitment to offering quality products, organizational efficiency, and organizational consistency.

If Wisdom Business Academy adopts more of the relevant, universally recognized quality models, it will be better placed to ensure that its processes are consistent, minimizing the opportunities for any form of error (Gifford 2007). If Wisdom Business Academy adopts more of the relevant, universally recognized quality models, it will be better placed to ensure that its processes are enhanced in line with documented facts. Small businesses with more ISO quality certifications commonly outshine larger organizations that are devoid of universally recognized QMS. If Wisdom Business Academy adopts more of the relevant, universally recognized quality models, it will more likely to formulate to make decision factually (Gifford 2007).

  1. Risk Management

As noted earlier, Wisdom Business Academy has put in place various risk management measures, to address the risks that its student population faces especially, including health problems, property loss, burglaries as well as identity theft. Wisdom Business Academy uses the five-element risk management model, or method. The elements are: the making out and characterization of threats; assessment of critical assets’ vulnerability to particular threats; determination of the threats’ impacts; making out of how the risks can be lessened, and prioritizing the measures adopted to lessen the risks (Lee & Carter, 2012). Notably, Wisdom Business Academy Organizations took into account all these elements when it was developing its RMP. Although it has the RMP, it lacks a BCP for addressing the effects of recognized residual risks (Antunes & Gonzalez 2015).

Essentially, risk management entails the systematic selection of approaches, which are cost-effective, for lessening the impact of risk realization to particular organizations. Wisdom Business Academy cannot fully mitigate org steer clear of every risk owing to its obvious practical and financial limitations. Consequently, Wisdom Business Academy has to accept a degree of particular residual risks (Dorfman 2007). Notably, risk management is commonly pre-emptive. On the other hand, BCPs are aimed at addressing, or dealing with, the impacts of recognized residual risks.

The need to develop a BCP occurs since even exceedingly improbable events will happen over time. In implementing a BCP, Wisdom Business Academy may at first think of it as having practices that overlap with or even rival those of its RMP. Indeed, the Wisdom Business Academy’s RMP and BCP processes will be so closely linked to one another that such difference appears artificial. For instance, the RMP processes will be creating essential BCP inputs such as cost estimates, impact assessments, and assets. Notably, risk management as well proposes proper controls for any identified risks. Consequently, various facets that are critical to BCP processes are covered by risk management. Even then, the former go past the preemptive approach of risk management and suppose that given risks will materialize sometime in the future (Antunes & Gonzalez 2015).

Wisdom Business Academy should consider developing a DRM (digital risk management) plan as well. Notably, this digital era has brought a significant paradigm shift especially to technology-centered learning institutions like Wisdom Business Academy. Digital risks stem from heightened reliance on IT systems as well as digital processes. The risks are already posing a significant challenge to the new growing executive function of DRM officers according to Dorfman (2007).

Executives are responsible for both the attainment of strategic objectives and operational performance. It is important that the executives appreciate the express alignment of strategic business objectives of their organizations and the corresponding digital risks. DRM appears to grow into the succeeding evolution in digital security, as well as risk, strategies. DRM will re-characterize digital perpetuation and corporate governance in the days ahead and may be considered as a component of organizations overall RMPs as suggested by Flyvbjerg and Budzier (2011, pp.601-602).

  • Demand Forecasting

One of the operations management areas that get considerable attention at Wisdom Business Academy is demand forecasting. The management of Wisdom Business Academy is always keen on forecasting the future growth of its student population so as to put in place the facilities required by the growing population (Wisdom Business Academy 2015, par.2-3). Wisdom Business Academy uses a qualitative demand forecasting method, or model, the Delphi approach. The approach is hinged on human opinion along with judgement. It is structured and entails the aggregation of different opinions from diverse groups.  The Delphi demand forecasting approach adopted by some organizations, such as Wisdom Business Academy, motivates subjects to make known their reasoning, makes it easy to uphold confidentiality, and takes a short time if the requisite experts are available.

The Delphi approach’s downsides include that it does not offer subjects participation incentives, motivate them to partake in the attendant surveys for long or motivate them to make known their convictions. The approach does not allow for the instantaneous integration of emerging information into already completed forecasts. It anchors events and gives room to selective perception.

As noted earlier, when the events are anchored, demand forecasters let them impact on perceptions regarding prospective events. As noted earlier as well, the selective perception portends that forecasters pay no attention to pertinent information that they may not concur with (Tewari & Singh 1996, p.85; Vasigh, Fleming & Tacker 2013, pp.289-295). To address some of these weaknesses, Wisdom Business Academy should consider using particular quantitative demand forecasting models such as the time series model, the adaptive model, the causal model, and the simulation model (Ross 2004, pp.143-149).

Notably, these models are not dependent on expertise but on numbers. They do not depend on external stakeholder feedbacks, experiences or intuitions (Ross 2004, pp.143-149). The models assist organizations to adjust their numbers by considered the latest data, making it possible to spot specific trends that may give reliable forecasts. The owners of small organizations may be persuaded to take past unfavorable performances as anomalies or blame it on subjective factors that are already extinct or unavailable going forward. When quantifiable, objective, historical data is used, one can create expense, revenue or sales projections in line with the available history as a helpful element when developing his or her ultimate demand forecasts. That may give rise to the most unfavorable scenario, giving one room for planning how he or she will handle it if it occurs according to Ross (2004) and Tapio (2003, p.83).

Wisdom Business Academy should use quantitative demand forecasting models alongside the qualitative ones since the former help reduce or even eliminate inflated demand forecasts. The former assists in utterly falsified numbers or enthusiasm from staff that may be apprehensive not reporting positive numbers regarding own performance areas. Even in cases where one has steady, subjective information collected from one’s principal managers, suppliers, and clients, he or she over-rely on qualitative analyses if the information is not balanced or tempered with quantitative analyses according to Green, Armstrong and Graefe (2007).

When one enters data into programs such as Microsoft Excel, he or she can get patterns that may be employed in making rather precise predictions. He or she can examine revenue and expenditure data by vendor, customer, and company areas or date (Hilbert, Miles & Othmer 2009, p.880). Besides, quantitative demand forecasting models are better tool for appealing to external stakeholders than the qualitative demand forecasting models. If Wisdom Business Academy is keen on sourcing a loan facility, seeking for investors, adding partners, selling part of its business, or securing credit, it should use the quantitative demand forecasting models to ensure that the numbers it puts out are objective. Such numbers make forecasts appear highly credible than merely pitched rationales as suggested by Vasigh, Fleming and Tacker (2013, pp.289-295).

  1. Global and International Issues

As noted earlier, Wisdom Business Academy is keen on ensuring that it globalizes its operations. Indeed, Wisdom Business Academy markets itself as a center for preparing students to shake and move global business (Sunday Times 2010b). As noted earlier as well, with ongoing transformation of national economies into a single global economy, it is becoming quite clear that it is essential that operations management be leveraged on to address emerging globalization-related issues (Flynn, Morita & Machuca 2011). For Wisdom Business Academy to globalize or internationalize its operations, it will require specially trained employees such as global logistics managers, global supply chain managers, global purchasing managers, general operations managers, or global operations research analysts (Boutellier, Gassmann & Zedtwitz 1999; Loader 2006).

The employees and the academy will be required to take up global management practices and techniques and apply them in directing, as well as controlling, the operations. The employees and the academy should be keen on striking a viable equilibrium between local and global possibly by developing dissimilar strategies for the different markets or local product variations (Boutellier, Gassmann & Zedtwitz 1999; Loader 2006). Wisdom Business Academy may need to use a product standardization strategy and a product customization strategy simultaneously to conform to local tastes as well as national legal requirements while also reaching out to the global market. Currently, Wisdom Business Academy is devoid of a global strategy. It can develop based on the model proposed by Flynn, Morita and Machuca (2011) for the development of effective global strategies.

To develop a global strategy for Wisdom Business Academy, its operations manager should follow a number of steps. First, he or she should begin by appraising the Sri Lankan market, which the academy already serves without an effective international strategy. Second, he or she should guide the academy to explore other markets that can welcome the training it offers, possibly using elementary data (Flynn, Morita & Machuca 2011; Lawrence & Rosenblatt 1992; Loader 2006). Third, the manager should make out the resources that the academy has for global expansion (Loader 2006). Fourth, the academy should formulate its global, as well as international, objectives. Fifth, the academy should commence exploring the foreign markets representing the most promising opportunities. Finally, the academy should develop its service offering and offer it to the global market.

Recommendations

  • The Wisdom Business Academy’s operations manager should guide it take other quality models in addition its current CIMA Quality Partner and ISO 9001 model to gain more international recognition, boost its employees’ morale, and experience increased efficiency and client satisfaction.
  • Wisdom Business Academy should develop, as well as implement, a BCP for to address the effects of recognized residual risks (Antunes & Gonzalez 2015). That is because even exceedingly improbable events will happen over time.
  • Wisdom Business Academy should consider developing a DRM (digital risk management) plan as well owing to its heightened reliance on IT systems as well as digital processes.
  • Wisdom Business Academy should use quantitative demand forecasting models alongside the qualitative ones since the former help reduce or even eliminate inflated demand forecasts. It should use the Delphi approach together with the time series model, the adaptive model, the causal model, or the simulation model (Ross 2004, pp.143-149).
  • Wisdom Business Academy is devoid of a global strategy should develop and implement a global strategy based on the model proposed by Flynn, Morita and Machuca (2011) for the development of effective global strategies.

Conclusion

The primary objective of Wisdom Business Academy is to offer CIMA examination candidates academic support so that they are self-assured particularly when facing CIMA examinations. It has put in place systems aimed at offering it students a social-edge. In organizations like Wisdom Business Academy, operations management entails the duty of making certain that the operations are effective, that only the required resources are used, and that client requirements are met. The facets of the academy that relate to operations management-related theories include demand forecasting, quality management, risk management, and globalization issues. The academy should adopt a quantitative demand forecasting model in addition to its qualitative demand forecasting model, which anchors events and gives room to selective perception. It should adopt more global quality models, all focusing on product quality and the means of attaining it. Currently, the company uses a five-element risk management model. It should developed and implement a BCP and a DRM plan. The issues include hiring specially trained employees to manage operations globally, striking a viable balance, or equilibrium, between local and global, and developing an effective global strategy.

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