When Multivariate Analysis Is Appropriate For A Quantitative Study

Multivariate analysis deals with the observation and analysis of more than one variable at a time this technique is utilized in performing trade studies in design and analysis across a number of dimensions and at the same time taking into account the effect that the variable has on the responses of interest(Hair,2010).This type of analysis has several uses. These uses include; Capability-based design, inverse design, alternatives analysis, etc.

Read also Sampling Strategy and Sample Size for a Quantitative Research Plan

Multivariate analysis can be used in quantitative studies in various different ways. These include:

Organizing and counting of the data that is surveyed.

All social researcher find the raw data as being invariable. This is because it is impossible for them to collect all the data from all the regions. Organization of the data is however very important for the detection of any unknown factors, verifications of the assumptions made and much more. For quantitative analysis, organization of data is very important especially for numerical processes that have to be done such as to simplify on the explanation of the phenomenon (Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, & Tatham, 2006).

Read also Factors That Must Be Assessed When Critically Appraising Quantitative Studies

The data thus has to be standardized before analysis is done. Open questions needs some criteria to be set for categorizing the answers. The data can be summarized by conducting some cross tabulation and some statistics.

Summarizing of data by multivariate analysis

Using the basic analysis, it might be quite hard to understand the tendency of what is being surveyed when the raw data contains a lot of information and questions. Basic analysis becomes problematic once someone has to deal with more than two variables. In this case, multivariate analysis can be used to analyze complicated information which the human mind cannot adequately comprehend. Its calculation is very intricate though this type of analysis has popularized as computers developed. (Hairet al 2006).Some of the major methods of this type of analysis include;

  • The principle component analysis- it summarizes multivariate information into simpler values.
  • The multiple linear regression analysis- it estimates other variables basing on some of the fixed variables.
  • Factor analysis- uses multivariate data to estimate the potential data
  • Discriminant analysis-it determines which group a certain data belongs basing on some fixed variables(Johnson, & Wichern, 1992)

Read also Sources of Bias for Quantitative and Qualitative Research

Multivariate regression works on deriving a formula that describes how some variables change in relation to change in other variables. General linearmodels can be used for the linear relations which makes used of different matrixes with the formula written as;


Y represents a matrix which contains a series of multivariate measurements, X represents a matrix which can be a design matrix, B is also a matrix with parameters which can be estimated and U represents a matrix which contains noise or errors(Morrison,1990). The general linear model can used a number of statistical models such as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), ordinary linear regression, the T and F-test and many more. Multiple linear regression can also be used. According to (Morrison, 1990), is a generalized form of linear regression which considers more than one independent variable and restricts the dependent variable to one. These are used when the errors (matrix U), input in the equation do not follow a multivariate normal distribution. This type of multivariate statistical test may be useful in future research as it will aid in monitoring the changes of variables especially the numeric variable.

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Sampling Strategy and Sample Size for a Quantitative Research Plan


Notably, the population of a given research is constituted by all possible individuals who could be subjects of the research. The target population for the forthcoming study will comprise of all the salaried persons in a given locality defined by high crime incidence. Specifically, the population will comprise of all those have resided in the locality for at least six months and have been getting salaries for at least 12 months prior to being interviewed by the researcher.

Population Size

There is no census that has been conducted in the locality in the recent past. That means that the precise size of the population at present cannot be established. Even then, it is estimated that in the locality, there are 3,500 who will have resided in the locality for at least six months and been getting salaries for at least 12 months prior to being interviewed by the researcher.


Samples are subsets of the proposed populations for particular researches. The subsets are deemed to be representing their larger populations according to Bartlett, Kotrlik and Higgins (2001). Notably, the data gathered from the subsets is referred to as statistics, which are used in making specific inferences regarding the populations represented by the subsets. Sampling is the processes of selecting the subsets from given research populations. In the forthcoming research, the sampling will be probability based owing to various reasons.

First, the target population is already well-defined and known. Second, probability sampling will be done since the researcher has a detailed sample-frame, or list, of the population already. Third, the research will entail statistical analysis and only probability sampling methods are well-suited for the analysis. Lastly, the methods are less susceptible to bias than non-probability sampling approaches.

Sampling Type

The forthcoming research will entail the usage of a random sampling approach, simple random sampling (SRS). Notably, the specific sampling techniques adopted by researchers are largely dependent on the forms of interviews to be executed according to Bartlett, Kotrlik and Higgins (2001).  In the forthcoming research, the researcher will carry out structured interviews. SRS is well-suited for such interviews.

As noted before, there are other reasons why SRS will be suitable for the research. First, the target population is already well-defined and known. Second, the researcher has a detailed sample-frame, or list, of the population already (Emmel, 2013). Third, the research will entail statistical analysis and SRS is well-suited for the analysis. Fourth, SRS is less susceptible to bias than non-probability sampling approaches. In the research, the SRS will be executed by computer-based programs. Fifth, the sample will be assembled easily and fairly. Sixth, SRS will be highly representative of the research’s target population. Owing to SRS’ representativeness, it allows for the making of generalizations from sample results to the target populations (Brewerton & Millward, 2001).

How the Sample Will Be Drawn

Given that SRS will be employed in the upcoming research, every member of the research’s target population will stand the same likelihood of being chosen to be one of the research’s subjects. The sampling will be executed in a lone step, will each of the possible subjects chosen independently of all the other possible subjects (Brewerton & Millward, 2001).

Specifically, data on the possible subjects, those who will have resided in the locality for at least six months and been getting salaries for at least 12 months prior to being interviewed by the researcher, will be obtained from the labor office in the locality. The names of the possible subjects and their telephone contacts will be extracted from the labor office’s data base. The names and the corresponding telephone contacts will be saved in a computer. The computer will be used in aiding the random choosing of the forthcoming research’s sample.

Sample size

When executing studies, researchers are keen on the number of responses that they really require according to Bartlett, Kotrlik and Higgins (2001). The following formula has been used in computing the required size of the upcoming research’s sample.

Required Sample Size = StdDev * (Z-score)²  * (1-StdDev)  /  (error margin)²

The error margin, or confidence interval, that will be allowed in the research will be ±5%. The standard of deviation (StdDev) expected in the responses that will be given by the selected subjects will be 0.5. Notably, the 0.5 StdDev will make certain that the sample will be sufficiently large. The expected confidence level in the research will be 95%. The Z-score relating to that confidence level is 1.96. Thus, the required sample size in the research will be computed as:

Required Sample Size = 0.5 * (1.96)²  * (1-0.5)  /  (0.05)²

=  384.16

=  385 respondents

In the light of the research’s 3,500-person target population, the 385-respondent sample will be proper. The sample will ensure that the allowed error margin, or confidence interval, will be minimal. The sample will allow the researcher to be highly confident that the real mean will fall within the interval (Brewerton & Millward, 2001). As well, the sample size will ensure that only a highly limited variance will be expected in the responses. Overall, the sample size will yield markedly precise results as demonstrated by Bartlett, Kotrlik and Higgins (2001).

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Quantitative Research Article Summary – The Long-term Consequences of Parental Divorce for Children’s Attainment of Education

Bernardi & Radl authored the article and was subsequently published in the journal article of Demographic Research in 2014. The selection of this article was based on its quantitative design of quasi-experimental. The summary of the research model that this journal article employed can be found on page 1659. This journal article is a good example of quasi-experimental design owing to the fact that although the study conducted a comparison of various countries, there was no effort made to collect primary data through random sampling of the study groups. Additionally, this article employed experiment in its study since the groups were investigated without randomization.

Problem Statement

            The problem statement that this article was designed to investigate was the impact that divorce has on the attainment of the tertiary education by the children. Additionally, the other secondary problem was whether the society had any part to play in the parental break up.

Study Purpose

            The main purpose of this research article was to investigate the impact of the divorce on the attainment of tertiary education by the affected children. The other purpose of the research article was to find the extent to which the society had a role to play in the parental divorce.

Research Questions/ Hypothesis

            Research Question

            This research article developed one main research question that was used to develop the research hypotheses for the study. The study employed the following research question:

  • Does parental separation have any harmful consequences for the attainment of education by children with highly educated parents than those of children with less educated parents?

Research Hypotheses

From above main research question, the researchers developed four research hypotheses. The following are the four research hypotheses that were developed, (Bernardi & Radl, 2014).

H1: Divorce among the highly educated parents has more terse consequences on the achievement of post-secondary education by their children than in the children whose parents’ posses less educational levels.

H2: Children whose parents were less educated did not experience any significant impact of their parents’ divorce, on their education.

H3: Stratified educational systems offer the greatest consequences for attainment of post-secondary education for divorce.

H4: In the societies in which there is a lot of divorce, those children whose parents divorce, are less affected.

Study Methods

The study employed surveys of the Generations and Surveys that covered 14 countries, in collecting its data. Data was collected between 2003-2008, and owing to variation in divorce over countries; the study used hierarchical designs and a total sample population of 83,048, aged 25 years and above was used, (Bernardi & Radl, 2014).

Key Findings

The study found that divorce negatively affects the attainment of tertiary education by the affected children. The study further found out that in the 14 countries studied, those children whose parents separated achieved a university degree but their grades were seven percent lower compared to those of children whose parents were not separated. The other finding was that the penalty for tertiary education was high for the parents who had higher education, compared to the ones with less education.

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Measurement And Instruments For A Quantitative Research Plan

Levels of measurement used in the research

When carrying out research in social sciences, one needs to be reliable and accurate. Data collection in social sciences takes so many forms. These includes measurement of cognition, perception, opinions and others that cannot be measured directly. In the quantification of perceptions, events and people, there are four types of measurements that are majorly used. (Miller & Salkind, 2002)

Read also Levels of Measurement and Concept of Validity

The following are the four main levels of measurements that I found to be relevant for my study. I found these methods important because they match the type of data I collected and how I will use them in the analysis and finding the results. These thus goes hand in hand.

The four levels of measurements.

The nominal scale

This is also referred to as dummy codding. This method works by placing people, perceptions, events and many others into categories basing on some common traits. Some of the data naturally suits in the nominal scale. Examples of such include Americans vs. Asians, male vs. females, redheads vs. blondes and many more. The nominal scale is the basis in which analyses such as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) are formed as they require comparison between two categories. The nominal scale in this case falls into the lowest form measurement as it does not capture any information related to a focal object but basically groups the objects into categories. Coding in this case is done by use of numbers, labels or any symbol that can best represent the category that an object or a person belongs.(Miller & Salkind, 2002)

Ordinal Scale

This type of scale has got one major advantage over the nominal scale. It has all the details that are captured in the nominal scale but then goes ahead to rank the data collected from the lowest to the highest. They give an idea of where the data lies in relation to one another. The ordinal scale is evidently richer than the nominal scale but suffers information loss as it only ranks without giving more info on how far apart the ones ranked are. (Trochim & Donnelley, 2001)

Interval Scale

Unlike the two discussed scales of measurement, interval scale provides richer information about an object being studied. It denotes the distance one object is from the other thus providing more information about it. (Isaac & Michael, 1971)

Ratio Scale

This is the scale that provides the richest information about the object. This type of scales has all the information that all the previous three scales have but also contains an additional absolute zero point.(Trochim & Donnelley, 2001)

These four levels of data collection discussed above have an effect on how data is collected and analyzed later. Data collected wrongly will cause an adjustment to the analyses, design and basically the whole research. As I mentioned before, this is the main reason why I chose the above mentioned levels of measurements as they matched my levels of data collection.

Content, empirical and construct validity

Validity is the determinant to whether or not a design is well designed or not well designed and gives the outcomes that seen to be suitable to generalize the population of interest. (Cozby, 2001)

Construct validity refers to the degree to which a particular test measures what it is required to measure. It is very essential to the recommended validity of a test. (Bagozzi, Yi & Philips, 1991)

Read also Concepts And Types Of Reliability And Validity That Apply To Tests

Empirical validity also known as predictive or statistical validity illustrates how close the scores in a particular test correlate with the behavior as studied and measured in other contexts.(Cozby, 2001)

Content validity also referred to as logical validity describes the extent to which a particular measure stands in place of all the other facets in a particular social construct. (Cronbach, 1971)

How to ensure the three types of validity in a study

It is normally assumed that the study is valid just because the study carried out is scientific. This is normally not true. The researchers who carry out the scientific study are normally pushed by external forces such as the desire to get some certain results. Due to unreliability of the scientist, it is important to ensure that the results are reliable and conclusive. A reliable study avoids biases, utilizes the recommended sample size and majorly use random sampling procedure to collect data.(Cronbach, 1971)

Read also Validity and Reliability – Compare and Contrast Essay

To ensure validity, the following has to be undertaken;

  • Randomization

This is critical in ensuring validity of any research. It may be by the use of a random number generator or by use of a computer to collect data. This ensures that there is no bias. It does so by producing the comparable groups such as in the terms of age, gender, the participant characteristics and many more key factors.(Cronbach, 1971)

  • Sample size

The desired population should be able to carry out the study to the conclusion of it.A sample population is thus taken to represent the population. It is thus very important to get a reliable sample size so as to achieve reliable and statically significant results. (Moskal & Leydens, 2000)

  • Bias in results

This involves the production of findings that should not be produces due to alteration of methods. The most common forms or types of biases include; intervention biases which occurs when there is a difference in how the subjects were prevailed to the matter of interest, measurement biases which may be caused by social desirability where people favors themselves and thus may fail to provide honest responses and finally selection biases which occurs when a certain sample is omitted purposively.(Cronbach, 1971)

To improve the validity the following has to be ensured:

  • There should be clear definition of the goals and the objectives
  • The assessment measure should be matched to the goals and the objectives
  • Comparison of data should be made to ensure accuracy (Cozby, 2001)

How to ensure the reliability of the measurements in the study

Reliability is basically the level to which a particular assessment too is capable of providing consistent and stable results.(Cronbach, 1971)

The following will be used to ensure reliability in this text;

  • The test-retest reliability. This is basically a type of reliability achieved when one administers the same type of test twice to the same group of individuals over a certain period of time.
  • Parallel forms reliability. This is achieved by issuing the different versions of a particular assessment to the very same group of people. The different scores can thus be correlated so as to determine how consistent the results are. (Morse, Barrett, Mayan, Olson & Spiers, 2008)
  • Inter-rater reliability. This is used to assess the level in which the different raters or judges agree in their assessment. This is beneficial in that different people or judges in this case will have different views thus making it very reliable as different interpretations are made. (Moskal & Leydens, 2000)

All the above mentioned types of reliability are capable of determining the reliability of a measurement in a study.

Strengths and limitations of measurement using questionnaires


  • Very effective way of measuring people’s behavior, preferences, attitudes and opinions thus reliable
  • They enable replication thus making it easy to check for reliability
  • Questionnaires are distributed to several people in an area thus making it easy to gather opinions from different groups of people. (Munn & Drever, 1990)
  • They can be given to the same people twice so checking for reliability is easier.
  • The different versions of the questionnaires can be made and the correlations made to assess the consistency of the answers given. (Kimberlin & Winterstein, 2008)


  • Respondents may end up lying due to social desirability as they want to portray a positive image
  • People may answer wrongly due to language barrier or misunderstanding the language.
  • The closed ended questionnaires are not detailed thus creating a lesser scope for the assessment which makes it unreliable.(Munn & Drever, 1990)
  • The open ended questionnaires are not suitable for data collection and analysis as they need the researcher to read them in detail.
  • They are not suitable for the less educated as they may end up giving wrong answers. This is because it requires superior writing skills and understanding of the questions so as to express the answers well.(Kimberlin & Winterstein, 2008)

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Comparison Of Qualitative And Quantitative Research Approaches

A research refers to  an investigation  undertaken  with an aim of generating knowledge, the tasks of research is to generate the exact  information  that will guide in the decision making  process, the systematic  investigation  involves the gathering of information using the  appropriate instruments of data collection, for example use questionnaire or the  sampling process, quality output of the research requires the accurate analysis and the recording of the  data  that will aid researchers’ decisions .

Qualitative research

According to Merriam,(2009).Qualitative research is a type that concentrates its study by trying to understand  the perspective of the study from the  population, normally, the type of research  obtains their accurate information on opinions, values and the behaviors  in their natural social context, most of the  researchers utilizes the mode of the research because of its flexibility, they allow the   adaptation  and mostly it’s an open ended form of  questionnaire  that enables wider maximizing of data collection. It gives a respondent  freedom to respond  depending on their understanding of the subject under he study

Also the existing relationship between the  participants and the  researcher is a casual thus gives an opportunity of giving the response more elaborately and in the detailed form, the  vigorous flexibility  clearly reflects the  much and deeper understanding of  the problem that is being investigated. Moreover, the other  advantage of qualitative research  is that it clearly highlights the  purpose of the research, on other words they try to understand   how people make the  sense in the views of the world, mostly sociologist use the qualitative research since its interpretation  gives a clear  view of the world  practices which  later  transforms to  human behaviors.

Quantitative   research

It is type of research that  bases it study on the numerical  data in   determining  the generalization of   findings, quantitative research  explain the phenomenon in a  statistical manner.(Parkinson &  Drislane,2011). It essentially  collect  data in numerical way  and the question also   suits the  respondent relatively  quantitative research  naturally studies a certain subject matter in nits natural state, most of its data  is in the form  numbers and so the  end findings can be used in giving  assumptions based on  concepts, at the end it helps give  further prediction of the results ,

The advantage of the quantitative research is that the data   is collected constructively ,it  aids in the hypothesis  construction  since  the research findings  has been replicated in  sub-population  hence the  type of research is useful in obtaining more credible results (Leech,1954).

Similarities of the quantitative and qualitative   research

The existing similarities is that both research tries to  give logic triangulations  in their findings, the change  the findings  by using the variables ,they also help to provide  background information  on the context  of the subject that  is being studied. in addition, they effectively facilitate  the interpretation   between the variables by clearly explaining  the  factors underlying their relationships.

Difference between qualitative and quantitative research

Difference refers to  the state of having disparities  or  being unlike  between two objects, however, despite the two  research being utilized   by sociologist, it has some  character disparities, in qualitative research,  its content is based on  humanistic interpretation whereas the   quantitative  research it  is scientific and objective, moreover  in the analysis. qualitative research   experiences  had  description  has human existence in values of data contribution  and while drawing conclusion it does not need the use of numbers, on the other hand the quantitative research  in its analysis, it uses the numbers  and even percentages  in drawing conclusion,  it accounts the  data  in numerical  form. In conclusion the researcher might opt to use any of the two types of research, it depends on the nature and objectives of the study taken .

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Assessing Research Designs and Recommending Quantitative Research Designs


There are different methodologies or designs that can be used in research. The type of methodology that the researcher uses in the research is determined by the research question. Another factor that might influence the type of methodology to use is the difference in the paradigms that are reflected by the different designs. This paper will discuss the different research designs used in educational researches, their strengths and weaknesses as well as offer and also make recommendations on the best design to use in a specific research. The paper will also propose a quantitative research plan and offer recommendations on the best research design for the research plan.

Research Designs

There are different classifications of research designs. Some researchers prefer to classify them as either qualitative or quantitative designs, while others classify them as being either non-experimental or experimental. Other researchers will classify research depending whether it was carried out in the laboratory or in the field.  It is obvious that there are varied ways of classifying research designs. However, in these classifications there is much overlap.  For instance, we can have a non-experimental design that is qualitative and can also be quantitative (Cobb et al., 2003). According to Cobb et al. (2003), you can also have an experimental study that has some qualitative aspects.

In correlational research, the relations between the variables are studied quantitatively. Apparently, a major disadvantage in correlational research is that the effect and cause relations are undetermined (Cobb et al., 2003).  Another disadvantage is that the variables are not manipulated unlike in other studies. Here, the researcher can only collect data based on these variables and then analyze the data to determine the relations between the variables. This is a major disadvantage. However, the design is best applied in studies with no need to manipulate the variables.

In experimental research, participants in the study are assigned to different treatments or tests. This research design requires at least some measurable differences between the groups prior to the conducting of the research. Before the samples are assigned a group, be it the control or experimental group, there needs to be some recordable differences between the two. These records will help the researcher to determine whether the difference or change between the groups after the research is due to the factors attributed to the experiment. This can be disadvantageous where there are no clear differences or recordable differences between the groups prior to the study. Matter of fact, if the study is not observed properly, the researcher might end up recording changes that were indeed affected by the prior state of the group rather than the experiment itself. Although major research institutions regard true experiments as being the ideal research designs, it is quite hard to conduct these in educational institutions.

Another commonly used research design is the Quasi-Experimental design. According to Cook and Campbell (1979), the researcher doesn’t assign participants randomly to different research groups. This method is often used in educational researches. In these research, it is usually deemed unethical to group samples randomly. For this reason, there has to be a determined method on how to assign the samples. One major advantage of this methodology is that researches try to control the differences between the research groups as much as possible. The researchers use statistical controls and matching to control the differences between the sample groups. Another advantage in using the Quasi-experimental design is that the researcher is able to control the variables that are related to the study’s outcome.

One strength of qualitative research designs is their ability to allow the study sample to offer their holistic descriptions. These studies are particularly carried out in naturalistic settings. These studies are not as complicated as other research designs. The data here is collected using pictures and words rather than quantifiable and numerical indicators (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1996).  Another advantage of this design is that it allows for the consideration of processes deeming them to be as important as the products (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1996). The design can be used where the researcher is not decided on specific hypotheses for the study. You will also find that this design is specifically focused on the samples beliefs, thought processes and attitudes. In some researches, these are important yet can be misleading in other contexts that require factual findings.

In Cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs, developmental issues are the major focus (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1996). The longitudinal design allows for the monitoring and collection of data by the researcher over a period of time about the samples. This is done over varied waves or periods of time. The researcher then studies the difference between the study groups over the study period. The major advantage of the study is the focus on an individual over a period of time. However, the study design is considered to be difficult to conduct.

The longitudinal design is quite expensive for many researchers. Another disadvantage to the design is the task of tracking the individuals over the study period. Some might relocate or even decide that they want out of the study. In the cross-sectional study, the researcher collects data on different individuals and doesn’t assess the same individual. The research is conducted at the same time and not over a period of time. The study allows for the expedient carrying out of a research.

In design experiments, the effects of educational interventions are examined. This is done in actual classrooms. The major advantage of using this design is that the intervention progressively changed and re-evaluated over time as the obtained results are obtained (Brown, 1992). This design is most appropriate in the development of different learning theories. The experiments also allow for the introduction of new instructional techniques. According to Cobb et al. (2003), researchers use this design in the development of new theoretical perspectives. However, this design is quite engaging. The researcher has to keep changing the research design as the theories change with the progression of the study. Future instructions have to be considered in the design of the design experiments.

Another popular research design is the micro-genetic approach. This design is used where one sample is under research. The method allow for the detailed study of a single sample over a period of time. This is advantageous as the results of the study are very specific and detailed. However, it can be time consuming and quite expensive to carry out this type of study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods can be used to analyze the data collected.

Quantitative Research Plan

Research Question

I propose to carry out a research to determine whether the financial status of formerly imprisoned persons is better after two years on parole or off parole from the date of their release. This will be the research question. The study will be quantitative and will seek to determine the economic status of the different persons prior to being released and after being released. Other factors like their educational background and geographic location will be held constant.

Research Design

The most appropriate research design to use in this study will be quantitative. There will be questionnaires that will be administered to the individuals alongside standardized tests. The study sample will be made up of 100 formerly imprisoned persons that have just been released from jail. Half of these persons will be on parole while the rest won’t. I propose this sample size as it is appropriate for the study and will yield adequate results. Because the study sample is not very large, I propose to employ a single-subject design. A longitudinal study will be employed in this study. This study will enable the researcher to collect data on the samples at different set times. The researcher will then examine the changes in the results between the different study samples.

Research Instruments

I propose the use of questionnaires and interviews for data collection. These instruments are appropriate enough for a study sample of 100 persons. The questionnaires will be closed. This will help produce quantitative data as it is the researchers plan. The standardized tests will help elicit more information from the parsons alongside the questionnaires. The close-ended questionnaires are also relatively easier to analyze as compared to the open-ended ones. The proposed sample size of this study meets the bare minimum set by the American psychological Association (1999) for a standardized test. This tests are the best in this study as they will put in considerations the different socioeconomic and ethno-cultural levels of the samples (Brown 1992). As the sample will have to be people released with a period of one month, it will definitely be hard to come across 100 persons released from one correctional facility. Chances are, the released persons will be from varied geographical locations. The standardized tests are most applicable in such conditions.

Inappropriate Designs

In this study, it would be impossible to carry out an experimental research. This is because it is not possible to randomly assign persons to either be on parole or off parole. A micro-genetic design might not be appropriate as one person cannot be both on and off parole. As I am not interested in the different developmental changes that might occur over time, it would also be inappropriate to use a qualitative design in this research.

Observational data will not be used in this study. This would be inappropriate as it will only produce qualitative data (Brown, 1992). The researcher doesn’t intent to research on the different perspectives that surround the community of the sample. If the researcher wanted to learn what was happening in the lives of the participants, then observational data would come in handy. If they did not intend to use questionnaires, the method would be appropriate. However, seeing the research intends to use questionnaires observation will not be necessary. The differences in the geographical locations of the sample make it impossible to observe all the samples. The method cannot be used to yield quantitative data rather qualitative data.


In the determination of the research design to use in a study, different factors have to be considered. The study sample is one of them. As stated in this paper, it is impractical to use certain designs when the study sample is too large or too small. Another factor to consider is whether the study is qualitative or quantitative. The research questions is definitely the most important determining factor in the selection and determination of the research design. For a final design, it is most advisable to consider the strengths and weaknesses of the different designs among others.

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Evaluating Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Quantitative Research Designs


The general quantitative research design structure is founded in the scientific techniques where deductive reasoning is applied. In this case the researcher creates hypothesis which are related to the research questions that are normally founded on the purpose of study. These hypotheses are highly based on the available theories addressing the research subject. This is what determines the kind of research design to be adopted in quantitative research that contains various research design methods. The hypotheses guide on collection of data that is employed to investigate the problem. The data is then used to test whether the hypothesis is true or force and hence, assisting in making the final conclusion in the study (Burkholder et al., 2016). This paper focuses on evaluating a quantitative research article to find the association between the research question, hypothesis, theory, the research problem, research purpose, and research design.

Evaluation of the Research Question and Hypothesis

The research questions are logical extension of the purpose statement in this research. The researcher intends to address the identified theory gap by answering the two provided research questions. The two research questions try to find out whether cultural variation between a supplier and buyer lower the joint supply chain negotiations profit outcome and whether cultural variations moderate the effect of bargaining strategy and trust on shared profit results. These questions are clearly the best to address the identified theoretical gap regarding how cultural variations affect interaction between buyer and seller. The research is based on the experimental quantitative research design which focuses on testing the research hypothesis that is derived from the research question. We can therefore say that the two research questions align well with the research design. The research data are gathered using negotiations simulation which captured the activities that takes place during negotiation noting on how they influence cultural variation influence the negotiation techniques and how it influence common profit. Thus the research question aligns with the employed data collection techniques (Babbie, 2017).

The research is based on quantitative research which involves experimental research design. The research is based on inferential questions which follow from a theory. Thus there are no descriptive questions seeking to describe responses to major variables and there are no inferential questions seeking to contrast groups or associate variables. The research variables include seller and buyer negotiations which is dependent on culture, which is independent variable. The variable in the inferential questions are consistently positioned from independent to dependent variables in inferential questions. The paper contains four null hypotheses that are provided in a predictive manner. The four research hypotheses are highly consistent with the two set research questions. The research questions and hypothesis illustrate that the research will be conducted in a business negotiation set up where buyers and sellers from different cultures will be involved, but they fail to mention the actual research participants (Babbie, 2017).

Identifying the Type of Quantitative Research Design

There are various research designs that can be used in quantitative research. This research has adopted experimental form of qualitative study were simulation strategy is employed to collect the required data. The researcher used 78 MBA student from one of business schools in US from different cultural background; different countries. The participants were divided into two groups; buyers and sellers. Data was gathered by use of buyer-supplier dyads negotiation simulation, where different buyers negotiated with different sellers with intention of reaching an agreement, and asymmetrical distribution of profit evaluated. The paring of buyer and seller was based on their cultural background information. The negotiation was guided by the provided instruction. The simulation focused on joint profit, where the aspect of trust and bargaining strategies were evaluated using a follow-up questionnaire (Ribbink & Grimm, 2014).

Analyzing Alignment among the Theory, Problem, Purpose, Research Questions, Hypothesis, and Design

The research paper is focused on the growth of the study regarding supply chain globalization which requires great interaction of buyer and sellers with different cultural background. Although the matter has been intensively researched on the researcher realizes literature gap with respect to theory on how cultural variations influences relationships between buyer and seller. This defines the research problem and from it the paper develops the research purpose of evaluating how the cultural variation theory in the global supply chain influences interaction between buyer and seller (Ribbink & Grimm, 2014). This directs the researcher into developing the two research questions which are used to develop the four research hypothesis after effective evaluation of the current available theories addressing the identified matters. The hypotheses are then employed in defining the research design to ensure that they are effectively tested and a conclusion drawn based on the adopted research design. In this regard, there is a high level of alignment among the theory, the research problem, purpose, question, hypotheses, and the research design (Babbie, 2017).


Quantitative research normally aims at establishing the association between dependent and independent variables in a population. It can either be experimental or descriptive in design. These designs are highly influence by the identified research problem, the proposed research purpose and the defined research questions and hypothesis. The analyzed paper focuses on experiential quantitative research, a design that is adapted after effective consideration of the theory, research problem, research purpose, questions, and hypothesis.


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