Tag: Technology

Cultural, Legal, Security Issues and Concerns to Considered when Developing a New Technology

Cultural, Legal, Security Issues and Concerns that Can Impact American Culture, that Must be Considered when Developing a New Technology

            There is growing need for new technologies that promote information sharing and communication (Zhang, 2011). There is no doubt that information is power and key to improvement of life for the individuals who have access to it. The use of electronic systems penetrates into government, workplace and private lives and thus can pose a substantial impact on the lives of its users (Edewor, 2004). Therefore, any development in the information technology must involve legal, cultural, and security relationships.

            When developing a Smartphone application, it is important to note that the application can influence the lives of its users and those who are around them. The application can be a source of power and as such, there is need to structure the application such that another network or computer cannot control the information, thus ensuring its efficiency and reliability (Malaguti, 1992). Providing proper security protocols comes in handy in ensuring the privacy of information. The smart phone application may require the user to enter personal information and this will require proper security measures to safeguard such information. This is inherent because loss of privacy may attract legal issues from the users. The legal issues governing privacy is of important concern and the development of the application must ensure that privacy of information is assured at all costs.

            The other issue of concern to take into consideration is the nature and purpose of the application. An application has a potential to influence the lives of its users and there is need to consider the cultural implications of the application (Zhang, 2011) . For example, a dating application may influence the behaviour of the teens, which use the application. Therefore, it is necessary that a cultural consideration be made and appropriate security measures be integrated into the development of the application to limit its use to the intended age groups. The application should have mechanisms for strong passwords and registration process that involves the user inserting personal information to authenticate his/her age.

Cultural, Legal, And Security Mistakes That a Company Make When Working On the Development of a New Technology

            Technologies stretch across the society, which has varying values and traditions. New technologies have provided people with the capacity to do the things that they would never do, in an anonymous way (Zhang, 2011) . When new technology is developed, it provides a platform where people interact, share, find love, socialize and find other people who share similar interests. Such anonymous interactions in the platforms offer a leveling effect. However, when developing new networks, a company may forget to provide maximum-security protection and thus allow an infiltration into the private lives of the users. A security breach has many implications on the individual life and the societal values and ethics of workplace.    

Read also New Technology Requirements for the Health Care Industry and Their Implementation      

The other mistake is inability to safeguard the use of the new technology for the intended purpose.  In addition to making taking proper security measures, there is need for measures to be taken to ensure that the new technology serves the intended purpose. Lack of proper measures to define the population set that can use the technology as well as providing no information regarding the same can lead to a misused of the new technology. For example, a technology developed for data sharing must state clearly the terms of use of such technology in order to ensure that the buyers or users of the new technology are privy to terms of use. In the event of a misuse, the developers shall suffer less legal damages.

Transformative Impact of Computational Technology in My Life

More and more we are experiencing advances in technology especially in the world of computers. Over time, I have come to appreciate the power of computing and the transformative impact that it has brought about in my life. Starting with the wireless connections available at very high speeds, to other computational technologies there is more and more integration between the physical world and the cyber which has had both negative and positive impacts on my life.

Apparently, I am not the only adult that has a smartphone. According to The Pew Internet & American Life Project (2001), more than 40% of the America adults own a smartphone. It is evident that these smart phones are very popular with young adults. I acquired one with different reasons in mind. At first, I only did not want to seem out of fashion by having just any kind of phone. However, things changed upon acquiring the smart phone. My life has totally changed and revolves a lot around my communication using my smart phone. If I am not busy doing chores or other stuff, I will be probably chatting with a friend or searching the World Wide Web using my phone. This computational technology has helped me create friends online yet seem so far from those near me physically.

 It is actually very funny considering that you will feel closer to a total stranger you just met over the internet yet you are like a stranger to the people close to you. This is another computational technology that has really affected my life. My physical relationships are suffering at the expense of my online relationships. Apparently, I a spending more time online than with other people physically. However, there is a good impact that was brought about by internet into my life. I am now able to carry out my studies online from anywhere as long as I have internet. This has really helped ease my study patterns and provided more sources for info ration and data on topics that I might research on online.

At home, computational technology has led to the loss of my freedom. Initially, it would have been easy to snoop around the internet, communicate with your friends even when you were grounded, watch movies and play games online without the knowledge of your parents, etc. This has changed with technological innovations that allow our parent to snoop around and monitor our internet usage. I have not been lucky enough to escape this. According to XXXX, it is easier now more than ever to track and monitor a person’s internet usage and history. I guess with this innovation there is the loss of freedom too.

There are some negative transformational changes that have been brought about into my life by computational technology. Ever since I started using a laptop for my assignments and studies, I have noticed that my eye sight has become problematic. In fact, it has now become apparent that I cannot sleep for as long as I used to there before. On doing some research, I discovered that this was because I have been using my laptop some minutes before going to bed. I do not have a choice but to do so for I need to study and I do so mostly using my laptop. According to Kraut et al. (1998), this has been a major negative impact brought about by computers upon its users.

Starting with the smartphones, the laptops too have not spared many their technological impacts that are both negative and positive depending on the context. Personally as stated earlier, I have suffered loss and gain in different areas of my life due to the use of a smart phone.The computer did not spare me either. Though I use it for research and studies, the lack of sleep and affected eye sight are just but evidence of its impact.These are just but some of the positive and negative effects of using computational technology in my life.

Financial Indicators of a Technology Company in Justification of Picking its Stock Listed


There is a wide spectrum of benefits that come with owning stocks whether purchased collectively or individually. Beside their historical value appreciation, stocks can yield income from dividends. Owning stocks has been proven as one of ways to deal with inflation since their returns consistently exceed the inflation rate. It follows hence that when the inflation rises, most corporations transfer their higher costs to consumers thus implying that their profitability as well as the resulting stock prices is seldom affected by inflation. In addition, there is tax benefits associated to owning stocks. It is important to note that capital gains are not taxed until one sells. The capital gains tax rates are often lower than the ordinary income tax rates.

Read also Capital Market Efficiency

Stocks hold more potential than most investments over the long run. It is reported that stocks have yielded an average annual return in excess of 10 percent since 1962. Purchasing in stock of a company allows one to have a share of the company’s success as well as failure. In the course of the last century, the prices of stocks have been seen to rise or fall subject to a corporate profits or earnings. Although stock prices can temporarily undershoot or overshoot the true value of the stock, ultimately, prices follow earnings. While the potential profit from a stock investment is unlimited, the potential loss is subject to the amount of investment. It should be noted that the price of a stock and consequently the value of one’s investment fluctuates extensively. There are times when the market stagnates in a period of little or no growth and subsequently lower values for stocks. This is referred to as a bear market. On the other hand a bull market refers to a period when stock values are on the increase. There is need to evaluate one’s risk tolerance as well as making stocks a part of well designed investment plan. This paper seeks to assess the financial indicators of a technology company in justification of picking its stock listed.

There is a wide spectrum of benefits that come with owning stocks whether purchased collectively or individually. Beside their historical value appreciation, stocks can yield income from dividends. Owning stocks has been proven as one of ways to deal with inflation since their returns consistently exceed the inflation rate. It follows hence that when the inflation rises, most corporations transfer their higher costs to consumers thus implying that their profitability as well as the resulting stock prices is seldom affected by inflation. In addition, there is tax benefits associated to owning stocks. It is important to note that capital gains are not taxed until one sells. The capital gains tax rates are often lower than the ordinary income tax rates.

A Recap of Stocks Investments

Most businesses avoid the tendency of holding too much cash that is redundant, in most cases a portion of their profits are invested in assets that can be converted into cash easily and within a short time, this are readily marketable securities that can be liquidated within a short notice  when cash is required. Such securities include government securities, debentures, bonds and stock that are marketable thus easy liquidation within a moment in case cash is needed. Stock in well performing companies is a viable way of investing excess cash, this means that a business acquires an equity interest in another business, thus it signifies a position of ownership in a business, stock provide regular income in form of dividends. These securities are highly liquid and can be converted into cash easily by selling on securities market. Bonds are financial instruments used by corporations and governments to borrow money from institution and individuals to fund their operations (Shangquan, 2000). Subsequently, a company holding the bond is a creditor to the issuing company for a period of time and thus is entitled to payment of the debt and some interest which translates to some extra income.

Most investors will agree that the higher the returns are in a certain investment the higher the risks involved. The relationship between risk and returns cannot be overlooked. Safe investments often carry lower risks but on the other hand they have lower returns. They are different level of risks associated with common stock as well as with corporate bonds. while on one hand corporate bonds have lower risk compared to common stock, they offer lowest return among the two, common stock generally have higher risk but higher potential returns on investment (Sandilands, n.d.) .

In corporate bonds the associated risk depends on the performance and financial stability of the company, thus in case of bankruptcy it will be unable to repay the bond value. Common stocks offer higher returns by way of dividends. On the other hand one may also trade the stocks in a stock market at a higher price than the purchasing one (Shangquan, 2000). The risk includes loss of projected profits. If the share price drops below the buying price one may suffer financial loss.

Diversification is an investment concept widely used by investors and portfolio managers to reduce portfolio risk. When an investor owns diversified investments, the risk is reduced when poor performers are compensated by better performing investments. Effective diversification is simply not having a range of different investments, but rather it is selecting a mix of investments that given a set of conditions they will not react in the same manner this implies that they are investments that often carry low correlation (Shangquan, 2000) .   Correlation is considered to be a statistical measure of the extent to which two investments tend to perform the same in particular market conditions.

Well balanced portfolio consists of different classes of assets and variety of investments falling under each class of asset. For instance, different investments in different securities often fall or rise in value seasonally. By distributing your money across a range of investments which may include stocks, bonds and short-term investments, you spread investment dollars among the three investment classes (Shangquan, 2000). Consequently, this will smooth your portfolio performance.

Types of Stocks

There are many types of stocks that one may chose to invest in. Stocks are bought and sold on one or more of the several stock markets such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the American Stock Exchange (AMEX) , and Nasdaq. Stocks are said to be listed when they are sold on an exchange. On of the categories of stocks are the growth stocks. This type of stocks have good projections for fast growth as opposed to the economy or stock market and they generally have average or above average risk. Most investors buy growth stocks due to their good reputation of earnings growth as well as prospect that they will continue to generate capital gains over the long run.

 Blue Chip stocks generally involve industry-leading corporations with top-shelf financial credentials. This type of stocks tend to pay good, steadily rising dividends, while generating some growth, offering reliability and safety as well as having low to moderate risk. Income stocks pay a much larger portion of their earnings in the form of quarterly dividends. This category of stocks involves more mature, slower growth companies. The dividends they pay to investors are thus generally risky to own as compared to growth stocks. While the price of income stocks do not grow rapidly, the dividends safeguards beneath the share price. It should be noted that even when the market falls in general, the income stocks will not usually be affected majorly since the investors will still receive their dividends.

Cyclical stocks are another category and are so called following their fortunes tending to fall and rise subject to the economy at large. This implies that they prosper when the business cycle is on the upsurge and they suffer when the business cycle is in recession. Another type of stocks is the defensive stocks. These stocks are theoretically insulated from the business cycle and consequently have lower risk owing to the fact that customers purchase their products and services in bad times as well as good times. Companies that sell foods and drugs as well as utility companies fit in this category. Other categories include speculative stocks and value stocks.

Rationale for Picking Stock in the Technology Industry

A company is said to be competitive especially due to the constant demand for new and innovative products in the market. Intense rivalry among competitors can lead to big loses for an organization especially if organizations decide to engage in price wars. An array of impressive technological advances has increasingly made global business easier and effective.  These developments coupled with efficient airline transportation have served to make the business world become gradually smaller.  However, there is still a persistence of competitive forces that does not seem to change. Awareness of the pertinent competitive forces can aid a company in venturing out a position in its respective industry that is less susceptible to attack.  This is helpful in determining how structurally attractive an industry is and seeks to illuminate on the company’s relative position within the industry in question. It is vital to note that the ultimate profit potential of an industry is subject to the collective strength of the industry forces. Every industry has structural underpinnings in terms of a set of fundamental economic and technical characteristics that result in the competitive forces.  The Porter Five Forces Model is instrumental in comprehending and weighing the structure of the business environment of an industry, as well as assessing the threats of competition to a given company. The model breaks an industry into logical parts, analyses them and puts them back together in a bid to provide an understanding of the structure of an industry business environment as well as the competitive threats into an industry.

Porter’s Competitive Model accentuates how the competitive structure in an industry is affected by five fundamental forces. The forces are; Suppliers bargaining power, threat of potential new entrants, bargaining power of buyers, threat of substitute products and services, Intra-industry rivalry. The degree of competitive rivalry of an industry forms the core of the model with the other four forces branching from it. The supplier power is encapsulated in their ability to offer products that are unique or products that are differentiated (Lima, 2006). The supplier ought to provide benefits through geographical proximity to the consumers, and warrants a long time working relationship. In addition, building up switching costs is vital in enhancing the supplier’s bargaining power.

On the other hand, a buyer’s bargaining power is subject to their ability to gain volume discounts and special terms of service. Multiple alternative sources and availability of standard and undifferentiated products and services is a culminating in the bargaining power of the buyer.  A new entrant can be considered as startup or an existing company that has not prior competed with the Strategic Business Unit in its geographic market (Porter, 1985). In addition, an existing company can also pose as a new entrant threat if it shifts its business marketing and growth strategy in a manner that begins to compete with the SBU. Substitute products and services encapsulate the alternative to doing business with the SBU. However, formulation of substitute products is dependent on the willingness of the buyers to substitute, the relative price of the new substitutes and the level of switching cost.

Critical Success Factors for the Industry

The technology industry is highly competitive and can be quite profitable if a company is able to attract and maintain a high market share. For a company to succeed in the technology industry there are several critical factors that should be considered including capital, research and development, qualified human resource, well networked supply chain and favorable economic conditions. A technology company requires enormous initial capital investment to purchase equipment and lease buildings/ land where the firm is to be set up. Technology related hardware and software is expensive and should be paid for promptly.  A technology company should ensure that they invest in a well equipped research and development department to produce innovative and original technological products. This investment would require a huge capital outlay and very talented; preferably experienced manpower.

It is the manpower that is hired by a company that makes use of the resources that the company has. A technology company needs the hired employees to efficiently utilize the available tools to produce high quality products that are original and will meet the demand of consumers in the market. An organized supply chain is critical in ensuring that raw materials and finished products reach their destination within set timelines. A technology company should have constant communication with members of their distribution team so as to ensure that they are aware of stock levels. Once involved members reach re-order levels, they should fill the necessary paper work to ensure that they have the products that they need to maintain the supply chain. A stable economy is necessary for a technology based company to be able to develop and maintain profitable income. A fluctuating currency should be avoided in starting up or re-investing in a technology based company.

Stock Prices and Ratio Analysis

Financial statements offer a description of cash inflows as well as outflows for a firm subject to three classes of activities namely; operating activities, investing activities and financing activities. The operating activities generally involve the transactions in the typical business operations of the firm. The investing activities includes the cash flows that result from purchases and sales of securities, property plant and equipment, while financing activities shows the cash flows that ensue from transactions with owners and lenders which are funds received from lenders, contributions of capital owners such as sale of stock, payments of dividends, and payments made to lenders (Florentina-Simona, 2010). Financial and cash flow statements serve as a reticulate of the actual as well as anticipated ingoing and outgoing of cash in an enterprise over a specified period. It evaluates the amount, predictability, and timing of cash inflows and cash outflows and is instrumental in forming the foundation for business planning and budgeting (Hamman, 1994). They allow the provision of information that serves as a tool of evaluating the changes in the net assets of a firm, its financial structure with the inclusion of solvency and liquidity, and its capability to affect the timing and amounts of cash flows in a bid to adopt to the changing business environment and opportunities (Florentina-Simona, 2010).

When buying stocks, investors are interested in financial statements to assess the current earnings as well as to predict future earnings. The financial statements have a considerable influence on the price at which the stock is bought and sold.  A ratio is considered to be a quotient of one magnitude divided by another of the same kind. It offers the relation of one amount to another. As regards financial statements, absolute values are usually difficult to conceive and commit to memory. Consequently, amounts in financial statements are often more meaningful when compared to other amounts.

One of the significant ratios of the financial statements is the current ratio. Current ratio is defined as the current assets divided by the current liabilities. This ratio offers an indicator of the ability to pay short-term debt. It is universally agreed upon that this ratio should be greater than 1.  Debt-Equity ratio is another significant ratio which provides the measure for the risk assumed in a given business. It should be noted that as the debt capital increases relative to the equity capital, the greater the risk. A high debt-equity ratio implies that when a corporation issues bonds, it will have to pay a much higher interest rate. In the event of stock being issued, investors will require a higher rate of return and may try to attain this higher rate by seeking to buy at a much lower price per share. Another key performance indicator is the operating ratio. This is the ratio of total expenses and sales. This ratio shows the percentage of sales that ought to be used in paying the expenses. The ratio is not considerably valuable on its own and it makes more sense when compared to past operating ratios whereby a possible trend may be detected. In addition, a company can compare its operating ratio to that of other companies in the industry.

New Technology Requirements for the Health Care Industry and Their Implementation

Assignment 1 Instructions: Technology Assessment

  1. Identify and analyze what you believe to be the most significant new technology requirements for the health care industry. Indicate how providers should approach the implementation of this new technology requirement that you have identified. Provide support for the response.
  2. Analyze the basic technology underlying health care information systems. Argue that the need for technological innovation and / or modification is most pressing. Support the argument with examples.
  3. Recommend an innovation / modification, and explain how the recommendation could improve the overall level of health care in your own community. Include specific example(s) using local hospitals or other health care providers to support the response.
  4. Suggest a key action that senior health care leadership could take in the community in which you live to push the boundaries of information technology management. Next, speculate on the effect to the community as a result of the improvement to the health care technology.
  5. Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

New Technology Requirements for the Health Care Industry and Their Implementation – Sample Paper

This paper discusses the most significant new technology requirements for the health care industry and the manner in which providers should approach implementation of these requirements. Furthermore, the paper will present an analysis of the basic technology underlying health care information systems. The introduction of high technology therapeutic and diagnostic equipment has caused a revolution in regard to delivery of healthcare. It goes without argument that medical technology is essential for improving and maintaining people’s health and the general quality of their lives. In fact in the modern era industry, almost all medical practices rely on medical health technology. These technologies are generally utilized in diagnosis, treatment as well as assessment of patient care (Hoyt & Yoshihashi, 20014). More than ever, the modern day medical technology is costly, effective and more advanced. Besides, the need for high technology therapeutic and diagnostic health care equipment or facilities continues to grow. However, it is necessary to exercise care in order to avoid conflict with social justice, cost effectiveness and medical necessity. Therefore, providers should ensure that the new technology meets the requirements for the health industry.        

Read also Emerging Health Care Technology with Potential to Overcome Current or Emerging Barriers to Care

There are various new technology requirements for the health care industry that require consideration. According to Scott (2015), health IT engineers and professionals require creating and running applications that are less complex and affordable. For instance, considering a platform as service approach (PaaS), IT professionals in health care industry should focus on providing technologies that can enable management of integrated care to enable physicians and patients realize real value. New technologies should enhance the capacity of predictive modeling and analytic tools (Hoyt & Yoshihashi, 20014). This implies that the new technology should enhance the capacity of these tools in regards to stratifying the population, provision of better screening tests, identification of at-risk patients, identification of gaps in healthcare, and facilitation of improved pre-care planning. This is essential for providing the physician with actionable information especially at the point of care. The new technology should increase the efficiency of portal and CRM tools in regards to managing pre and post-care needs of the patient. Besides, the new technology should enhance CRM tools in enabling proactive intervention and tracking of patients by care coordinators (Hoyt & Yoshihashi, 20014).

Read also How Patient Education and Technology Impacts the Delivery of Healthcare and Nursing Care

New technologies should also have the capacity to enhance collaboration and social tools. This is significant for allowing health systems engage, cooperate and initiate long-term behavioral transformation in the population. Coordinators of health care should be able to access and utilize online chat platforms to be able to interact with other caregivers in order to improve management of health. New technology, also, should have the capacity to increase the efficiency of mobility apps tools (Venot & Burgun, 2013). Physicians find these tools necessary for education, outreach and post-care procedures. Furthermore, new health care technology should enable patients to obtain and report essential information as specified at the healthcare point. The new technology in the health care industry should have the capacity to recognize its full potential impact. This means that it should fill the existing gaps like availing information that never existed before, and that which can solve the existing problems; for instance, providing cures for fatal ailments. The new technology should apt in order to allow patients to benefit and enable physicians recommend sensible course of action.

In terms of approaching the implementation of the new technology requirement, providers require offering the kind of technology, which aligns the establishment of compliance policies as well as procedures. In addition, they require leveraging technology that embraces a proactive approach as compared to a reactive compliance approach (Venot & Burgun, 2013). Providers should, also, ensure that the risk level associated with any new technology, product, innovation, or process is indicated. Therefore, for purposes of correct implementation, appropriate measures for risk control should be put in place by providers.

Read also Benefits of Healthcare Information Technology

In health care industry, an electronic health record (EHR) system is an essential platform for real-time records that enable instant availability of patient information by authorized users. An EHR system can allow authorized health care providers to create and manage health information in a digital set-up that can be shared across various health care organizations. EHR system is enabled to perform various functions that include: maintenance of problem list, health decision rule, drug interaction checks, e-prescribing and computerized provider entry order for making medication orders (Scott, 2015). The system allows quick and easier retrieval of patient information.                

Read also Key Elements of Certified Electronic Health Records (EHRs)

The need for technological innovation and/or modification is pressing in healthcare industry. For instance, there is need for modification to enable consumers’ access to more effective, less expensive and more convenient treatment (Venot & Burgun, 2013). This will reduce the average time that patients have to spend waiting to see the doctor. There is also need for more technological innovation in order to enable citizens to have greater control over their health statuses. For instance, considering implantation of sensors in the bodies of patients can enable them effectively monitor their diseases.

Telemedicine is an appropriate technological innovation that can improve the overall health of people in different communities. This is essential especially to people in rural settings that lack essential resources like those in metropolitan areas (Hoyt & Yoshihashi, 20014). Equipping patients with telehealth services facilitates quick discharge from intensive care units and also reduces the rate of mortality. This innovation is widely practiced at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York. Even though telemedicine is not entirely a new idea, it requires a lot of support to facilitate its growth. There are various key actions that senior health care leadership can take to push the boundaries management of information technology. The most significant recommendation is this regard entails enhancing portal technology (Scott, 2015). This is a significant tool for enabling patients to become better managers of their own health. This technology provides a reliable platform for patients and doctors to meet and interact online. In so doing, patients and other community members obtain more information regarding better management of their health. 

Read also Implementing a Telemedicine Solution – Grand Hospital Case Study 

In conclusion, the introduction of high technology therapeutic and diagnostic equipment has caused a revolution in regard to delivery of healthcare. In regards to new technology requirements for the health care industry, health IT engineers and professionals require creating and running applications that are less complex and affordable. The new technology should enhance the capacity of these tools in regards to stratifying the population, provision of better screening tests, identification of at-risk patients, identification of gaps in healthcare, and facilitation of improved pre-care planning. In terms of approaching the implementation of the new technology requirement, providers require offering the kind of technology, which aligns the establishment of compliance policies as well as procedures. There is need for modification to enable consumers’ access to more effective, less expensive and more convenient treatment.

Emerging Health Care Technology with Potential to Overcome Current or Emerging Barriers to Care

New health care innovations offer the advanced registered nurse an opportunity to apply emerging technologies in practice to improve quality and patient outcomes. For this assignment, research an emerging health care technology that you think has the potential to overcome current or emerging barriers to care.

Write a 500-word brief that provides an overview of the technology, its purpose, and how it would function in a health care setting, including any ethical or legal issues that would accompany the incorporation of the technology. Discuss how this technology could improve access to care and promote patient safety and quality.

Electronic Health Records (EHR) Technology – Emerging Health Care Technology with Potential to Overcome Current or Emerging Barriers to Care

Overview of the Technology

The selected emerging technology likely to address the current barrier of care in a health care setting is the electronic health records (EHR) technology. EHR is an electronic form of a patient’s health record that was traditionally stored, used, and created in a paper chart. According to McMullen et al. (2014), the EHR refers to longitudinal patient health information electronic records, created by a single or more encounters in a particular care delivery environment. The record includes information such as patient demographics, radiology reports, vital signs, laboratory data, progress notes, immunizations, medical issues, medical history, allergies, and medication reports (McMullen et al., 2014).

Read also Key Elements of Certified Electronic Health Records (EHRs)

Technology Purpose

The EHR technology is used in tracking and collating sets of information, changes monitoring in patients’ results following the implementation of a novel procedure or practice, and establishing which patients are in line for specific procedures such as immunization, theatre, and physical exams among others. EHR are particularly created for sharing of information not just among different forms of providers that are situated in various settings such as the emergency department, in-patient, and primary care, but also between patients and providers (McMullen et al., 2014). 

Read also Economic Impact of Electronic Health Records

How the Technology Would Function in a Health Care Setting

EHR technology enhances easy access to patient data at the point of care. This permits nurses to always confirm various patients’ details to avoid errors. EHR also makes it easier to monitor patient’s progress, and enhancing the provider’s ability to make treatment plan changes, in a situation where the patient is not responding as anticipated in the first defined treatment approach. EHR also makes information directly available to nursing, giving them a chance to access evidence-based tool, which they can use to make patient’s care decisions. EHR also helps in enhancing the integration of care in a health care setting with discrete units all needed for successful patient care. This makes it easy for one unit to use information generated from the last unit to promote patient care (Robin, 2016).

Read also How Patient Education and Technology Impacts the Delivery of Healthcare and Nursing Care

Ethical or Legal Issues Related to the Technology Incorporation

The EHR technology incorporation is faced by electronic data security, confidentiality, and privacy issues. EHR involves sensitive patients’ information that needs to be safeguarded from any security issues (Kruse et al., 2017). As a result, the government has imposed the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) that protects the security and confidentiality of electronic health records of a patient, which is among protected health information. This Act is based on three security pillars which include technical, physical, and administrative safeguards of protected health information (Balestra, 2017). EHR is also guided by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act that insists on the importance of reporting any data security breaches when they occur (Kruse et al., 2017).

How the EHR Improves Access of Care, Promote Patient Safety and Quality of Care

EHRs have highly enhanced the quality and safety of health care delivery by information access, lowering illegibility, and permitting closer clinical care processes oversight. EHRs have also enhanced collaboration and multidisciplinary teaming in the health care settings, eliminating medical errors and enhancing efficiency in care. This has played a great role in improving safety and quality of care, resulting in improved patient outcomes (Manca, 2015).

Read also Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005

EHRs have also played a great role in allowing patients to access their medical information when they need it (Mcmillen et al., 2014). This includes patients under telemedical or telehealthcare, such that they can easily manage their health condition and get updates through the EHR system. This has enhanced care access for patients in a great way.

Read also High-Reliability Organizations and Patient Safety

Use of Bar-coded Medication Administration Technology to Enhance Quality and Safety Standards in Nursing – Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography on Technology in Nursing – Assignment Instructions

Write a 4-6 page annotated bibliography where you identify peer-reviewed publications that promote the use of a selected technology to enhance quality and safety standards in nursing.


Rapid changes in information technology go hand-in-hand with progress in quality health care delivery, nursing practice, and interdisciplinary team collaboration. The following are only a few examples of how the health care field uses technology to provide care to patients across multiple settings:

  • Patient monitoring devices.
  • Robotics.
  • Electronic medical records.
  • Data management resources.
  • Ready access to current science.

Technology is essential to the advancement of the nursing profession, maintaining quality care outcomes, patient safety, and research.

This assessment will give you the opportunity to deepen your knowledge of how technology can enhance quality and safety standards in nursing. You will prepare an annotated bibliography on technology in nursing. A well-prepared annotated bibliography is a comprehensive commentary on the content of scholarly publications and other sources of evidence about a selected nursing-related technology. A bibliography of this type provides a vehicle for workplace discussion to address gaps in nursing practice and to improve patient care outcomes. As nurses become more accountable in their practice, they are being called upon to expand their role of caregiver and advocate to include fostering research and scholarship to advance nursing practice. An annotated bibliography stimulates innovative thinking to find solutions and approaches to effectively and efficiently address these issues.

Annotated Bibliography on Use of Bar-coded Medication Administration Technology to Enhance Quality and Safety Standards in Nursing

The selected technology is bar-coded medication administration (BCMA) technology. This is a technology used by nurses in health care organizations to reduce medication administration errors through electronic verification of the five rights of administrations of medication. These include the right route, right patient, right time, right dose, and right drug at the bedside of a patient (Shah et al., 2016). The annotated bibliography features different research articles focusing on assessing the effectiveness of this technology in reducing errors in medication administration, and factors that influence the levels of errors or variation in levels of errors in different health care settings.

Read also Assessing Quality and Techniques for Improving Quality and Safety at Alfredo Gonzalez Texas State Veterans Home

Baiden, D. (2018). Factors affecting the impact of barcode medication, administration technology in reducing medication, administration errors by nurses. Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics, 13(1), 1-12.

In this article, Baiden (2018) assesses and reviews literature on the aspects influencing the effect of BCMA technology in lowering medication errors in hospital settings by nurses. Baiden (2018) used the socio-technical model as the conceptual framework. The BCMA impact in lowering errors in medication administration was found to differ based on various factors including nurse associated issues, technology associated setbacks, and clinical settings. Aspects contributing to this variation included system monitoring and measurement, software and hardware computing infrastructure, pressures and regulations, clinical content, external rules, human-computer interface, culture and procedures, people, communication and workflow, as well as internal organization policies. This article informs nurses and nurses informatics on the importance of regulating the eight internal and external factors that influence BCMA performance, for better results.

Read also Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005

Boonen, M. J. M. H., Vosman, F. J. H., & Niemeijer, A. R. (2016). Tinker, tailor, deliberate. An ethnographic inquiry into institutionalized practice of bar-coded medication administration technology by nurses. Applied Nursing Research, 33, 30-35. 

In this article, Boonen, Vosma and Niemeijer (2016), conducted research to explore the nursing practice for nurses operating BCMA with the intention of understanding its effect on their work. The research was founded on the claim that BCMA effectually lowers the quantity of errors in medication dispensed to patients. The main intention of the research was to determine whether this does happen in actual practice. The researchers employed institutional praxeology and ethnography research methodology to uncover the BCMA complex practice by nurses. The research results demonstrated that the BCMA implementation created a number of issues resulting in constant tinkering of the technology by nurses. Simultaneously, they were unceasingly deliberating the best techniques of tailoring the BCMA to all their patients. The research concluded that although operating BCMA is frequently misinterpreted as being automatic and mindless, technology conformity is needed as the tinkering with BCMA normally entails comprehensive consideration by nurses. This article will be used to inform nurses about the importance of learning a technology for effective use.      

Kandace, K., Linda, H., Pat, M., Barbara, T., & Constance, J. (2016). Creating a culture of safety around bar-code medication administration: an evidence-based evaluation framework. JONA: Journal of Nursing Administration, 46(1), 30-37.

In this article, Kandace et al. (2016) develop a BCMA technology 4-phased evaluation program to assess the level of current technology integration into BCMA practices, procedures, and policies. The aim of this evaluating was to identify the barrier to the use of BCMA best-practice. The program offered a framework for frontline nurses to make an alliance with hospital leaders to progressively improve and evaluate BCMA by use of systematic processes. The evaluation established that the effectiveness of BCMA is contingent on compliance with protocols of best practice. This article will be used to inform nurses on the best way to ensure BCMA efficiency and how they can be propagated through partnership with organization leaders and by employing continuous systematic improvement process that combines new evidence-base practice to guarantee safety in medication administration. 

Seibert, H. H., Maddox, R. R., Flynn, E. A., & Williams, C. K. (2014). Effect of barcode technology with electronic medication administration record on medication accuracy rates. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 71(3), 209-2018.

In this article, Seibert, Maddox, Flynn and Williams (2014) conduct research to evaluate the BCMA effect with electronic medication administration record (eMAR) technology on error occurrence in medication administration. A posttest-pretest nonequivalent assessment group was utilized in examining the BCMA-eMAR effect on the accuracy rate of medication administration at two community-founded hospitals. The results demonstrated that the general rate of accuracy at hospital 1 significantly increase from 89% in the first phase of implementation to 90% in the third phase of technology implementation. Hospital two also experienced a 3% increase in accuracy rate from what was recorded in phase one to what was recorded in phase 3, with the final accuracy rate being 96%. It was concluded that BCMA-eMAR implementation in the two hospitals resulted in a significant increase in total accuracy rate in medication administration, and did not introduce any new form of error into the process of medication administration. This article will inform nurses and healthcare organizations on the important of BCMA technology in enhancing medical safety and the importance of integrating eMAR in BCMA for more improved results.

Shah, K., Lo, C., Babich, M., Tsao, N. W., & Bansback, N. J. (2016). Bar code medication administration technology: a systematic review of impact on patient safety when used with computerized prescriber order entry and automated dispensing devices. The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 69(5), 394-402.

In this article, Shah et al. (2016), conduct a systematic review of the literature published between 1992 and 2015 on how BCMA technology influence patient safety when implemented with automated devices for dispensing and prescriber order entry using a computer. The researchers evaluated 37 articles that met their research purpose after employment of inclusion and exclusion criterion. According to the assessment, there is limited comparative evidence offering BCMA justification with its complementary technologies. About 5 studies in the review proposed that BCMA contains the ability to lower total medication errors, transcription errors, and administration errors. Its effect on wrong time errors is unclear. BCMA was also found to contain the ability to enhance compliance with the need to check the identity of the patient prior to medication administration and to chart medication administration on the MAR. This research will inform the nurses on the importance of BCMA in reducing medication errors and also inform on research gaps that they can focus to gain more evidence on BCMA technology in the administration of medicines.

Thompson, K. M., Swanson, K. M., Cox, D. L., Kirchner, R. B., Russell, J. J., Wermers, R. A., Storlie, C. B., Johnson, M. G., & Naessens. J. M. (2018). Implementation of bar-code medication administration to reduce patient harm. Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes, 2(4), 342-351.

In this article, Thompson et al. (2018) conduct research to evaluate the effect of BCMA technology implementation on the rate of errors in medication administration in an inpatient environment, particularly those that cause harm to the patient. The analysis involved assessing cases of reported medication-associated adverse incidences for over 12 months before BCMA implementation and five years during the 11 separate BCMA implementation waves. Only actual errors were considered. The assessment results demonstrated that there was a decline of 43.5% of reported errors in medication administration, after BCMA technology implementation. The rate of errors associated with harmful medication declined by 55.3%. There were no extreme errors created by BCMA factors. This research concluded that BCMA’s consistent use enhances patient safety by lowering the quantity of harmed patients by errors involving medication administration. This article is used to demonstrate the benefits of BCMA technology when effectively employed in nursing practice.

Truitt, E., Thompson, R., Blazey-Martin, D., Nisai, D., & Salem, D. (2016). Effect of the implementation of barcode technology and an electronic medication administration record on adverse drug. Hospital Pharmacy, 51(6), 474-483.

In this article, Truitt et al. (2016) conduct a research study to assess the effects of BCMA and eMAR technology on adverse drug events (ADEs) profile in a hospital environment. Truitt et al. (2016) conducted an after-and-before study examining the effects of the said technology on ADEs profile at a teaching medical center with 400-bed using incident reports. The ADEs report in 5 months post- and pre-implementation periods were compared to establish if there was ADEs rate reduction in the phases’ medication use. The searchers also assessed the error severity and alterations in the distribution of error types. The results of the research demonstrated a decline in ADEs after technology implementation and transcription errors, although the administration error remained constant. There was also a considerable decline in the administration errors’ severity level. Implementation of BCMA and eMAR was found to improve patient safety a great deal.  This article is used to inform nurses on specific improvements BCMA-eMAR improves and what one should focus on as an individual for the best outcome.

How Patient Education and Technology Impacts the Delivery of Healthcare and Nursing Care


            The information technologies and the research that result from such technologies has led to newer and better methods in which nursing information is brought to patients. In addition, the use of technology has further influenced the pattern of empirical knowledge in nursing, which has influenced by evidence-based research and experience. However, the presence of evidence-based research is not enough, but there is a need for an educated patient population. Patient education has been identified as an important component of any organization. An educated and knowledgeable population is associated with reduced medical errors, increased participation in treatment, reduced length of stay and increased satisfaction. In recognition of the important roles that technology and patient education play in healthcare, the paper seeks to determine the impact that technology and patient education have on nursing care and healthcare delivery.

Read also Reducing Waiting time in the Emergency Room and Improving Patient Turnaround in Public Hospitals

Impact of Patient Education and Technology in Nursing Care and Delivery of Healthcare

            The increased need for patient-centered nursing practice has seen an increase in patient involvement and use of technology in nursing care. According to (Rankin, Stallings and London, 2005) many patients are now more involved in their healthcare care plans. Healthcare providers are now crucial healthcare educators in the various healthcare delivery settings. The evidence shows that when combined with technology, increased patient education is associated with increased levels of healthcare outcomes.

Read also Mental Health Patient Population and Community-Based Nursing Care

            The majority of the American population comprise of people in the old age due to the large number of baby boomers. This has lead to an increase in chronic diseases, which often require care to be provided in the home of patients. However, the increasing population, increasing complexity of healthcare and increase in the number of chronic illnesses makes patient education an important aspect of the nursing practice. Patient education increases their levels of participation in nursing practice, which reduces the physician home visits.

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            Moreover, an educated patient population positively impacts on the nursing practice. Patients who are educated play crucial role in their treatment plans, reducing the number of physician visits. Since the American healthcare is struggling with nurse shortage and increasing in patient demands, educated patient population is important in reducing the burden on healthcare practitioners, which allows more time for them to increase their attention to the hospital patients. In addition, the reduced workload is associated with an increase in the levels of output among the healthcare practitioners.

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            According to (Rankin, Stallings and London, 2005) patient education is associated with increased nurse-patient autonomy. Patient education not only increases their participation in their treatment plan, but allows nurses to focus more in primary care delivery. The authors point that increased patient nurse autonomy is associated with increased job satisfaction among the healthcare practitioners. As patients become more knowledgeable, they are able to make informed decisions, through increased knowledge about their problems and treatment pans. This eases pressure on nurses, especially those who offer advanced care, resulting in increased nurse job satisfaction.

Read also Structural Issues Associated with Healthcare Delivery : The Use of Electronic Prescribing System

            The biggest challenge in patient education has been the move from the healthcare practitioner deciding for the patient the best care plan, to a more collaborative nature where patient and caregiver make together the treatment decisions. According to (Huston, 2013) traditional patient education models rely a lot on self-care instruction guidelines, written material and medical management. However, modern technologies such as internet, television and videos have changed the strategies in which patient are educated. The use of modern technology has increased patient involvement in healthcare, which is attributed with positive experience among the healthcare receivers.

            Moreover, the adoption of advanced medical equipment and electronic records has increased the levels of healthcare outcomes (Dowding, Turley and Garrido, 2012). In a country where the healthcare is increasingly becoming complex, the adoption of electronic medical records has revolutionized the access to patient medical information and the ease with which physicians offer medical assistance to patients. The use of medical records has now made it easy for patient information to be shared among healthcare providers, better management of patient information and increased efficiency unlike when paper records are employed. The reduced paperwork, increased ease of sharing patient data and proper patient data management has been critical in the increasing levels of outcomes and efficiency in healthcare system that has struggled to cut down on costs.

An Example of a Topic

            An example of the topic where patient education and technology has been used to improve levels of care outcomes is the management of diabetes. According to (Williams, Herman and Kinmonth, 2003) the involvement of nurses and patient education are associated with increased levels of outcomes among patients who suffer from chronic illnesses such diabetes. Moreover, (Hunt, 2015) asserts that technology can supplement the healthcare practitioner by providing motivational and education support. According to the author, the use of technology in patient education can be used to help them in learning new routines and practices that are related to the management of diabetes.

Read also Improving Healthcare delivery and Performance

            More than 90% of American populations have access to mobile devices and internet (Hunt, 2015). However, people who suffer from diabetes may not be able to attend diabetes educational programmes or to attend care schedules due to financial, time and other constraints. Using technology such as mobile health applications, barriers to provider access can be overcome. Mobile health applications allow diabetes patients to get education on diabetes self-management such as exercising, blood glucose management, problem solving, healthy eating, monitoring for complications and taking medication.

            Some of the technological strategies for provision of patient education and care assistance to patients who suffer from diabetes include mobile phones-based and internet-based interventions. The mobile phone platforms provide a real time education and in processing and communication of data (Hunt, 2015).  The features of the mobile phones include the use of mobile internet by patients in uploading the readings of their blood glucose readings and receiving their daily, weekly or monthly blood glucose charts through email. Moreover, patients can use mobile phones to text the healthcare professionals with questions, who in return received response on self-management.

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            Moreover, the use of internet-based interventions provides the healthcare providers with opportunities to offer diabetes patients with diabetes education, motivation and support (Hunt, 2015). The web-based interventions involve the use of computer internet in delivery of diabetes education. The strategy helps diabetes patients to communicate with healthcare providers without time and geographical restrictions.

An Example Where the Topic Impacted me Personally   

            Some healthcare complications require emergency treatment, and this requires that one has access to medical help or medical expertise to offer emergency treatment. However, most people luck skills or expertise given that most of the complications are complex in nature. One example, in which technology and education has impacted me personally was when my niece suffered from asthma complications. Although my niece was on routine medical care, one night she suffered difficulty in breathing. The efforts to use her inhaler did not make her condition better. However, with the help of her mobile phone we were able to get the contacts of her personal physician. The conversation with the physician revealed that she individualized medication to which we were given directions on giving medication by the physician until she was taken to hospital. 

            The positive aspect of the experience is that the mobile phone communication was important in provision of medication guidelines which led to improvement of the patient condition. However, the process can be difficult to conduct especially if one is not a trained healthcare practitioner since some of the guidelines employ medical terms which are difficult for people who have no background in healthcare. This can be improved through a provision of more personalized and user-specific information. This involves collection of patient data and feeding into an automatic web-based platform, which offers condition-specific response, thus reducing time and nature of response.


The use of technology in healthcare and patient education are critical components in service delivery in healthcare. Healthcare technology and patient education can positively influence the levels of healthcare outcomes. The use of technology in healthcare can help in patient education, and bridging geographical and time constraints. Moreover, patient education helps in increasing self-management, increase of nurse job satisfaction and improvement in levels of care. The purpose of the paper was to provide a research on the impact of technology and patient education in healthcare. Through the research, it has been determined that technology and patient education are important elements in healthcare care delivery. Through these insights, increased emphasis will be placed on the importance of technology and patient education in the future nursing practice.

Zara – The Technology Giant of the Fashion World

As completely as possible, sketch the supply chain for Zara from raw materials to consumer purchase.

The supply chain at Zara begins with the facility manufacturing its fabrics to be used in designing its apparels. The retailer does not, in any way, rely on suppliers but opts to produce all raw materials local to save precious time that would have been spending outsourcing the same to South East Asian countries. Designs are sent to local cooperatives where sewing is done, after which they are returned to the facilities to be ironed by different specialists. After being wrapped in plastic, they are then transported to the warehouses where customized machines process the parcels before transportation by either trucks or ships to stores where consumers can now get them

Discuss the concepts of horizontal and vertical conflict as they relate to Zara.

A horizontal system relies on its own private team of creative minds to come up with concepts and designs that would use in creating a specific item. Every activity carried out by the company or retailer is done internally without counsel or ideas that originate outside it. Zara is an exception to this rule and chooses to embrace vertical conflict. The store does this by first consulting store owners who are their eyes and ears in as far as trends are concerned. They essential act as trend spotters whose primary task is to provide creative designers at Zara headquarters with real-time updates on what they need to out in the market. Managers receive this information from their personal digital consultants who have been tasked with ensuring that information on the latest trends reaches them promptly. They then proceed to implement this information, creating new designs for consumers.

Which type of vertical marketing system does Zara employ? List all benefits that Zara receives by having adopted this system.

Zara employs the corporate system found in the vertical marketing system to manage the manner in which business is run in the retailer. Activities are centralized, with the overall head of the conglomerate owning all other members of the distribution channel. In essence, the business is under the leadership of a single entity, making it rather easy for activities to be conducted without any operational hiccups. The advantage of this system lies in the company increasing its market share, which means it no longer relies on facilities in other countries to manage its distribution. Moreover, it’s vital to also note that the logistics are streamlined which ensures that ownership remains under a single individual.

Does Zara experience disadvantages from its “fast-fashion” distribution system? Are these disadvantages offset by the advantages?

One leading disadvantage of using the “fast-fashion” model, as is the case in with Zara is its unsustainable nature. The products and designs that are produced have a relatively short product life cycle, which means that the imitated products can only be on the shelves for a relatively shorter period. The disadvantage of employing this business model lies in the losses that would be made when the population targeted fails to purchase the products. The distribution also presents logistical complexities, especially when it is clear that the retailer owns all its supply channels. Even with these few disadvantages, they do not offset the advantages of this system since the firm has its researchers who investigate the popularity of a certain trend before deciding whether or not to embark on production.

How does Zara add value for the customer through major logistic functions?

Zara adds values for its customers by always ensuring that its designs are locally produced, avoiding outsourcing by all means possible. By so doing, the time factor that often troubles other retailers is considerably lessened, allowing the consumers to receive the products in less than two weeks. Furthermore, they also have an opportunity to make suggestions on what they would be requiring at any given moment by communicating the trends with the shop owners. The ideas are then relayed to ‘the headquarters where a group of creative minds to work to ensure that these designs are produced promptly and ready for all those requiring them.

Environmental Technology Unit 7 Assessment And Sample Answers

What are the primary three gases comprising the atmosphere?

The atmosphere is made up of three gases that include nitrogen at 78%, oxygen at 21%, and argon at 0.93%.

Explain how temperature varies with altitude.

In a situation where there are no clouds, snow or rains the temperature reduces by about 5.4oF in every 1000 feet increase in altitude. However, if it is raining or snowing or there is cloud, the temperature reduces by about 3.3oF in every 1000 feet increase in altitude.

Describe the environmental lapse rate.

The lapse rate refers to the rate in which earth atmospheric temperature reduces with altitude increase or the rate at which the earth atmospheric temperature increases with increase in altitude. The environmental lapse rate refers to the actual rate at which the surrounding temperature fluctuates with height (Nathanson & Schneider, 2014).

Why are sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and lead of such important that they are criteria pollutants under the NAAQS?

Sulfur dioxide, lead, and carbon monoxide are regarded as important criteria pollutant under the NAAQS because they can be found anywhere across the United States and they can harm the environment and people health and cause damage of property, even in small portion or light exposure.

What is the range of particle size for fly ash?

Fly ash particle sizes range from 0.3 to 250 µm with a major percentage of these particles ranging from 20 to 25 µm. The mean volume-based size of particle being 112.3 µm, and over 90% of particles are less than 197. 39 µm. In addition, ash fly is typified by bimodal distribution

Explain the greenhouse effect.

The greenhouse effect refers to a natural process which wars the surface of earth. When the energy of the sun reaches the atmosphere of the earth, some of it is echoed back to space and the remaining is absorbed and radiated again via greenhouse gases.

Describe carbon capture and sequestration. Do you think it is viable?

Carbon capture and sequestration also known as carbon capture and storage refer to a low carbon technology that captures carbon dioxide (CO2) from burning of gas and coal for generation of power and from cement and steel manufacturing among other industrial facilities. The captured carbon dioxide is the shipped through ship or pipeline for permanent and safe underground storage, safeguarding it from getting into the atmosphere and adding to anthropogenic change of the climate (Herzog, 2001). The carbon capture and sequestration is viable in managing high rate of carbon emission especially in industries. However, there is that small fear of what would happen if there is a leakage in the carbon dioxide storage area.

Discuss the operation of a high volume sampler. Why does it need an air pump?

Air samplers refer to instruments employed to gather air particles samples. A high volume air sampler characteristically sample over 1500 cubic meters (m3) of air in a period of 24 hours. A high volume sampler, air is drawn inside the sampler via a quartz filter or glass fiber using a blower in order for particulate material gathers on the surface of the filter. The particles measuring 100µm and below get into the sampling inlet with no a 10µm size-selective inlet and are gathered on downstream filter. The efficiencies for collecting particles greater than 20 µm reduces with augmenting particle size, and it extensively varies with wind angle with regard to the sampler shelter roof ridge. The sampled air volume is determined by the indicator flow-rat and airborne particulate matter held on the filter might be analyzed or examined chemically using various methods. The sampler needs a pump to be able to acquire the needed flow rate without drop of pressure (Nathanson & Schneider, 2014).

If the concentration of carbon monoxide is 2.9% at a location along the highway at 70oC, what is the concentration in ppm?

1% = 10000ppm

2.9% = 2.9%/ 1% x 10000ppm

= 2.9 x 10000ppm


Describe three air pollution control strategies listed on page 374 of our textbook.

There are various strategies given to control air pollution. They include complete source shut down where the uncontrollable source of pollutant is identified and closed down completely, despite the economic challenges it may bring. Complete shutdown however normally happens during the emergencies. Another option is source location where community air zoning is done to be able to position industries and plants in areas where there are fewer individuals living in the region. Other aspects such as weather conditions and prevailing pattern of wind should be considered. The third option is process change or fuel substitutions. For instance fossil fuel should be substituted with renewable clean energy or less pollutant for instance natural gas to substitute coal. This will reduce the magnitude of pollution (Nathanson & Schneider, 2014).

Explain the operation of a wet scrubber.

Wet scrubbers are effectual devices for air pollution designed for eliminating gases and/or particles from streams of industrial exhaust. A wet scrubber works by introducing the stream of dirty gas stream with the aid of a scrubbing liquid, characteristically water. Gases or particulate are gathered in the scrubbing liquid. Normally, wet scrubbers are the most suitable devices of air pollution for gathering both gas and particulate in a single system (Nathanson & Schneider, 2014).

Describe how sound is produced and how we hear it.

Sound is produced through vibration of objects. When a body vibrates it makes the medium in its surrounding to vibrate. Air vibrations are regarded as travelling longitudinal waves and they can be heard.  Sound waves contain areas of low and high pressure regarded as rarefactions and compressions, respectively. The created sound waves travel through the ear canal to the eardrum. The eardrum permits the vibrations via the ossicles or the middle ear bones into the inner ear regarded as cochlea. There are thousands of small hair cells in the cochlea that translate the vibrations into electrical signals which are sent via the hearing nerve to the brain. The brain interprets the signal to the sound that one can understand (Nathanson & Schneider, 2014). 

Due to the large number of runners, you are starting a quarter mile behind the starting line in the New York marathon. How long (seconds) after the starting gun is shot from the starting line do you hear the sound?

Speed of sound is 345 m/s

Speed = distance/ time

the distance = ¼ miles

1 mile = 1609.34meters

¼ miles =402.33meters

time taken to hear the gun =distance/speed

time = 402.33m/345m/s 

= 1.17 s

Explain the difference between loudness and pitch.

Sound loudness relies on the sound wave amplitude. In case the sound wave amplitude is large, then loud sound will be produced.  Loudness is directly relative to square of vibration amplitude. This implies that if the sound wave amplitude is double, the sound loudness will be quadrupled. Pitch on the other hand is the sound aspect that relies on the wave vibration frequency. High vibration frequency result to shrill sound with high pitch and if a sound contains low vibration, then, it contains lower pitch. Pitch is what is used to differentiate bass and soprano in a choir. While sound loudness relies on the wave energy or amplitude, sound pitch responds to the sound frequency (Nathanson & Schneider, 2014).

Search the Internet for a hand-held sound level meter. Briefly present its specifications and cost.

The internet search directs me to Amazon which is selling Pyle PSPL25 Digital Handheld Sound Meter with C and A frequency weighting for sound audio professional and musicians.  The device operates at a frequency range of 31.5 Hz to 8 kHz and has strong temperature ability of -10 to 60oC. It accuracy level is -/+ 1.5dB and operating humidity of 10 to 90% RH, and weighing 7.20 oz. Level range is low at 30 to 100 dB and high at 50 to 130dB, and operating temperature of 0 to 40oz, and dimensions of 9.06’’ H x 2.17’’ W x 2.17’’ D. it has auto power off time, weighting, fast, slow-battery type 9 V, included. The device costs $41.39

Describe health effects of noise exposure.

Exposure to noise of high levels can result to permanent hearing loss. The extent of damage is determined by the level of loudness and the duration of exposure. Exposure to loud noise for a short term can result to temporary change in the hearing ability which includes ringing in the ears or feeling of stuffed up ears. This may disappear after a while. However, long term exposure to loud noise can result to hearing loss of permanent ringing ears effect. Loud noise can generate both psychological and physical stress, interfere with concentration and communication, reduce productivity and contribute to injuries and accidents due to inability to hear warning signals (Basner et al., 2014).

Explain how to make an effective noise barrier.

The basic purpose of noise barriers is to safeguard receivers from unwarranted noise created by road traffic. There are various factors that require to be considered in the noise barriers detailed design. These include that the barriers need to be acoustically enough and should satisfy both acoustic and non-acoustic factors. Considerations to be given in acoustical design include barriers locations, barrier materials, shapes and dimensions. In addition, non-acoustical design considerations that include maintainability, aesthetics, structural integrity and safety among other factors must be considered (Nathanson & Schneider, 2014).

Technologies for Air Pollution Control – Environmental Technology


Air pollution basically refers to the foreign materials found in the air. These foreign materials can occur naturally or can be manmade. Naturally occurring eruption normally happens during volcano eruption where lava is spewed onto land, poisonous gases with ash, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Hydrogen sulfide, and emit particles are spewed into the atmosphere. Manmade air pollution is normally in high concentration in densely populated areas.

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Human can cause at least one contaminant that include vapor, dust, smoke, fumes, odor, gas or mist in quantities of duration, and characteristics into the atmosphere, resulting to injurious property, plant, or human or unreasonably obstructs of comfortable enjoyment of property and life (Wang, Pereira & Hung, 2004). Human activities contribute the highest percentage of the air pollution in the world. This prompted environmentalists to consider investigating on technologies that can be used to control air pollution while still achieving our daily operation goals. This paper reviews various technologies used today in air pollution control.

Technologies Used Today in Air Pollution Control

Flares Process

Flares refer to open flames employed for waste gases disposal during emergencies and normal operations. Flares describe a process of open combustion where oxygen to the flame is supplied by the surrounding air, and they can be operated either at elevated positions or at the ground level. Flares operated at elevated level employ steam injection to enhance combustion by augmenting turbulence or mixing and pulling in extra combustion air. Effectively operated flares can attain destruction efficiencies of about 98%. The flare technology is characteristically employed when the waste gases heating value cannot be economically recovered due to uncertain or intermittent flow or when the recovered product’s value is low.  In some instances,, flares are run together with recovery systems of baseload gas. Flares address emergency and process upset gas release which the baseload system is not structured to recover.

Read also The Relationship Between Indoor Air Pollution And Lung Cancer

There exist various forms of flare which include pressure head, air assisted, and steam assisted. Distinctive flare operation can be categorized as endothermic or fired, non-smokeless, and smokeless. In a smokeless operation, flares employ outside source of momentum to offer enough gas-air turbulence and mixing for complete combustion. Smokeless flaring is needed for the damage of organics which are heavier than methane. Non-smokeless function is employed for organic or other steams vapor which readily burn without producing smoke. Endothermic or fired flaring needs extra energy so as to guarantee complete waste streams oxidation for instance in case of waste streams of ammonia and tail gas of sulfur (Wang, Pereira & Hung, 2004).

Thermal Oxidation

Thermal oxidation is an extensively employed method of air pollution control. This technique involves the oxidation of organic vapors at high temperatures. Incineration which involves both catalytic oxidation and thermal oxidation is regarded as an ultimate method of disposal whereby organic compounds in a stream of waste gas are not collected and instead they are converted to water, and carbon dioxide among other inorganic gases.

Read also Clean Air Act (CAA) – USA Environmental Law

In thermal oxidation, a high temperature of more than 1000oF is used to heat contaminant-laden waste gas, where the organic chemicals are burned with air in oxygen presence. The main advantage of thermal oxidation is that almost any gaseous organic stream can be cleanly and safely incinerated, as long as suitable design, maintenance, engineering, operation, and installation are done. The technique is also able to achieve high; 99% and above, destruction efficiency with extensive range of emission streams (Hao, Wu & Wang, 2005).

Catalytic Oxidation

Catalytic oxidation also known as catalytic incineration refers to the oxidation process which changes organic compounds to water and carbon dioxide with the aid of a catalyst. In catalytic oxidation, the flame-founded incineration concept is changed by a catalyst addition to enhance the oxidation reaction, permitting minimized reaction temperature and/or faster reaction. A faster reaction needs a smaller vessel, therefore lowering capital, enhancing requirements for reduced auxiliary fuel, and low operating temperatures, and thus, lowering operating costs. Catalytic incineration is highly appropriate for emission streams treatment. This emission streams normally has low volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentration. Catalytic oxidation might permit an operation that is more cost effective compared to processes of thermal incineration. However, this technology is not highly embraced compared to thermal oxidation since it has a higher sensitivity to process conditions and pollutant characteristics. Operating and design considerations are thus critical to catalytic oxidation applications in air pollution control (Wang, Pereira & Hung, 2004).

Fabric Filtration

Fabric filtration refers to a physical process of separation where in a liquid or gas containing solid passes via a medium of porous fabric where solids are retained. The process might operate in a semi-continuous or batch mode, with periodic elimination of the solids retained from the filter medium. Filtration systems might as well be structured to work in a continuous way. Similar to other filtration methods, the filtration bulk is performed by accumulating solid cake. Significantly, the first filter cake layer must be created as the start of the filtration operation. Fabric filtration controls environmental pollutants in liquid or gaseous streams effectively. In the control systems of air pollution, fabric filtration eliminates gaseous emission dry particles. It also lowers air disposal problems (Wu, Ma & Zhang, 2018).

Wet and Dry Scrubbing

The scrubbing process is a single operation where in at least one gas stream components are absorbed into an absorbent selectively. There are two forms of scrubbing which include wet and dry scrubbing. Water is normally used as the most common absorbent liquor in wet scrubbing. Semidry slurry or dry powder is also applied as possible absorbents in dry scrubbing based on needs of a particular situation. Scrubbing is mostly experienced when flue gas is being treated to manage odors, acid gases, trace organics, particulates and heavy metals. In most cases a scrubbing system is comprised of more than one scrubber series. This is done to ensure an individual stage of a scrubber can use an absorbent unique to a targeted pollutants or pollutant. Higher total efficiencies of removal are frequently probable in a multistage system of scrubber compared to what could have happened with a single-stage scrubber. A good example of this is mostly found in the industry of rendering where both hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are produced in normal operations.

Read also Types of Sources of Environmental Pollution And Effects of Environmental Pollution on Human and Ecosystem Health

A scrubber employing an acid-founded absorbent liquid is utilized to eliminate ammonia from the air. The physical principles in structuring a wet scrubber is to utilize an absorption liquid that gives a high pollutant solubility in the gas steam to be treated. The second principle is maximizing liquid-gas contact surfaces.  Once the two conditions are adhered to, the pollutant will easily be absorbed into the liquid phase after diffuse out of the gas phase. Pollutant absorption in a gas phase into the liquid phase in contact with it theoretically happens when the liquid with below equilibrium pollutant concentration. This implies that pollutant found in the gas phase have to contain some level of solubility in liquid (Schnelle & Brown, 2002).


Condensation refers to the process of separation where one or more vapor mixture volatile components are separated the remaining vapors via saturation and then a change of phase. The change of phase from gas to liquid can be attained either by increasing system pressure at a particular temperature, or the system temperature might be lowered at a particular pressure. Condensation happens when a volatile partial pressure component applied on the vapor-phase goes past that of the liquid-phase component. The unit operations are condensers basically employed to eliminate volatile organic compound from streams of gas before applying other controls that include absorbers or incinerators, though can in some cases be employed alone to lower emission from the gas streams of high-VOC-concentration. A distinctive condensation system contains the pumps, condenser, storage tanks, and refrigeration system (Tang, Bi, Mortimer & Pan, 2019).

Gas-Phase Biofiltration

Biofiltration is a biochemical process that involves immobilized, microorganisms on a solid biologically active support, for an airstream chemical treatment. Biofilters have been utilized for abatement of volatile organic compound (VOC), odor-causing compounds mitigation, and can be used together with other technologies of treatment. Biofilters have been a progressively popular option as a treatment choice due to their low cost of operation, and comparatively low cost of capital in contrast to other technologies. It works under the ground that the airstream partition contaminants into a layer of aqueous on the bioavailable solid support, and them degraded through the presence of microbial community. An organic compound complete metabolism results to water and carbon dioxide, which are them taken out of the biofilter. Generally, conventional biofilters is regarded as the most fruitful in applications containing relatively low contaminants concentration and low flow rates (Wang, Pereira & Hung, 2004).