Explain the following typologies: state terrorism, state-sponsored terrorism, and state-enabled terrorism.
Scholars and experts describe state terrorism through a number of designed models. The developed constructs have been designed to identify distinctive behavioral patterns of state sponsored terrorists. Definition of state terrorism is even more complicated because of lack of common understanding of its phenomenon and its implications. In order to protect the society in which it belongs from internal and external disruption, it is the business of the state to threaten, use, violence (say execution, imprisonment, or acts of war) and this creates one major difficulty in the bid to define state terrorism (Weber, 1948).Weber analyses that the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory is one of the state’s responsibility that and presupposes that the state’s very existence is determined by the right to use violence.
State terrorism arises when the state initiates an abuse of the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force through use violence as a means of coercing society, other than defending it; it institutes a policy of elimination of entire section of another society or its own therefore behaving in illegitimate and unacceptable manner beyond the provisions of its sovereignty (Weber, 1948).
Generic definition of state terrorism combines a wide range of academic and governmental definitions. It states that terrorism is the use of force or systematic threat, whether for, in opposition to , established authority, with the aim of communicating a political message to a group bigger than the victim group by altering the behavior of the bigger group through instilling fear. Either the perpetrator or the victim or both will be operating outside a military context and never will both operate within a military context.
State-sponsored terrorism includes events where support is provided by a state for a terrorist act without their actual committing of the act. This is achieved through, political endorsement, providing funds, training, weapons or other logistical assistance e( intelligence, passports, use of diplomatic facilities, etc.)to groups that engage in terrorism(Schlagheck, Donna , 1990).
State –enabled terrorism refers to the type of terrorism that receives sponsorship, sanctuary and support that enable them to gain strength, to exist, plan, train, and execute their attacks.
Explain ideologies of left-wing and right-wing terrorism.
Left- wing terrorism is extremism from where communism evolved and has developed from working- class movements seeking in theory not to preserve, to eliminate, class distinctions. Their activities are aimed at the planning of terror actions against the United States government with objectives of replacing the government with a Marxist-Leninist system (Omestad, Thomas, Kaplan, David E., and Lovgren, Stefan, 1999). On the other hand, right-wing terrorism is extremism associated with the current domestic threat of terrorism within the United States. With regard to the study of 378 members of extremists groups showed that left wing terrorists are better educated and young than their right -wing extremists and are likely to reside in urban area (Smith, Brent, 1994).
Outline at least one country and one terrorist organization in that country that has been deemed a “state-sponsor” of terrorism by the United States.
Iran, acountry centrally located in Eurasia and western Asia has been deemed to be among the “State –Sponsor” of terrorism, and a suspected member of the Iran’s Revolutionary Guard Corps.
Why this country is considered a state-sponsor of terrorism
Iran has been designed by the United State as a State Sponsor because it has provided both ideological and political support for several militants and terrorists groups active in Iraq.
What sanctions has the United States implemented against the country outlined?
The United States’ Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) administered economic sanction against Iran, under the Iranian Transactions Regulations, 31 C.F.R. Part 560, and the Iranian Assets Control Regulations , 31 C.F.R. Part 535. These sanctions include ; financial dealings with Iran, Dealing in Iranian goods or services, personal communications, information and informational materials, over flight payments, transactions involving U.S. affiliates, Iranian petroleum industry, travel, pre-zero contracts and international organizations.
Does this nation provide a safe haven for terrorists? If so, for what groups?
Because of the limited presence of the United States and other western governments, Iran is attractive to terrorists. Also known sympathizers, terrorists and extremists are able to cross the long porous border to Iraq and transit its territory hence a safe haven for terrorists.Al-Qaida management council is a group that found safe haven in Iran in 2005 in custody of Iran’s Revolutionary Guard.
Do you believe that the country outlined has a chance of being taken off the state sponsors of terrorism list? Why, or why not?
Iran doesn’t have a chance of being taken off the state sponsors of terrorism list. The United States Department of state CountryReports on Terrorism 2010 states that terrorist organizations such as Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad(PIJ), and Hizballah all rely heavily on Iran’s support and will continue to receive it as long as Iran views these organizations as useful in serving its interests. Moreover, Iran has continually supported terrorism since the Islamic Revolution for a variety of reasons (Byman, 2005).
Is this country considered a “failed-state”? Why, or why not? What characteristics of a failed state does this country have?
Iran cannot be considered a failed state. Failed states are characterized by; their inability to provide basic core services, , notably security, inability to control their territories, endemic violence, and are not perceived as legitimate by their populations (Byman,2005). On the other hand, strong states are characterized by; their ability to control their territories, maintain monopoly of the use of force within their borders, and are perceived as legitimate by their populations ( Bruce, 2009). Based on the above explanation, Iran falls under strong states category.
What role does the United States Department of State have in the determination of state-sponsored nations?
Designated countries that state sponsor terrorism suffers four main sets of US Government sanctions: prohibition on economic assistance, a ban on arms-related export and sales, control over exports of dual-use items, imposition of miscellaneous financial and other restrictions, including : denial of duty free treatment for goods exported to the US, requiring the US to oppose loans by the World Bank and other international financial institutions, denying companies and individuals tax credits for income earned on terrorist-list countries etc.
How do the four waves of terrorism relate to the group in which you have chosen?
In the late 19th century, is when the first wave begun with two main reasons: technology and doctrine. A strategy or doctrine for terror was created by Russian writers for successors to transmit, use, and improve. Likewise, Bin Laden wrote a Training Manual for Al-Qaeda with the main aim of from the experiences of both enemies and friendsFaraj (1990).
Al-Qaeda, an organization with the purpose and recruitment pattern unique in the history of tourism, which was led and financed by the Saudi Osama Bin Laden was produced during the fourth wave of terrorism(Michele,2001).