United States vs Cambodia – Culture, Management Styles And Communication Strategies


United States

Located in Northern America

Total area is 9,826675, where land occupies 9.161, 966 and water 664, 709 sq km

World third largest country by size

climate is mostly temperature though tropical in Florida and Hawaii, low winter temperatures are also experienced in the northwest

International environment agreement: party to air pollution, environmental modification, climatic change, desertification among others

Total renewable water resources in 2011 was 3,069 cu km

Natural hazard includes tsunamis, floods, forest fires, volcanos, earthquakes, tornadoes and hurricanes

Land use as per 2011: permanent land was 0.26%, arable land 16.299%, others 83.44%

Natural resources include coal, copper, lead, and 16 more


Located in Southern Asia

Total area is 181,035, where land occupies 176, 515 and water 4,520 sq km.

Is a land of forest and paddies dominated by Tonle  Sap and Mekong River.

Climate is tropical monsoon rainy season, dry season and little seasonal variation in temperature

International environment agreement: party to desertification, climate change and biodiversity among others

Total renewable water resources was 476.1 u km in 2011

National hazards include monsoonal rains, occasional draught and floods

Land use as per 2011: permanent land was 0.86%, arable land 22.09%, others 77.05%

Natural resources include oil and gas, timber, gemstones and 4 more


United States

Native Americans lived in the country long before 1600s

Was colonized by British between 1630 to 1763

Witnessed revolution between 1763 and 1783

There was formation of young republic between 1783 when the company gained independence and 1815.

Between  1815 and 1860 the country experienced political reforms, expansion and turmoil.

The country experienced sectional controversy, reconstruction and war between 1830 and 1876.

This  went hand in hand with second industrial revolution that  took place from 1871 to 1914.

The second political reforms took place between 1880 and 1920

Then the first world war and the second world war after which the American developed their economy

This was followed by the development of super poser nation in the world between 1945 and 1960; the postwar period (United States History, n.d-).


The country was first reported by Chinese traders in 1st century

Khmer kingdom flourished between 6th and 7th century

The Angkor era followed which survived between the 9th century and 15th century

Then there was Cambodia dark age from the mid-16th century

They then became French protectorate for 90 years.

They gained independence in 1953

The country has changed its name for three time from Cambodia to Democratic Kampuchea  under Pol Pot command in 1976, then to People’s Republic of Kampuche in 1979 to the Kingdom of Cambodia in 1993

The country is currently ruled by Hun Sen as the Prime Minister and has ruled for the last 30 years (Cambodian Information Center, 2015).


United States

Has a population of approximately 318,892, 103

Population growth rate of 0.77%

Total dependency ratio is 51%

Has 82.4% total urban population

Average life expectancy  of 79.56 years

Official language is American English

Literacy level is 99% for basic education

Education expenditure is 5.4% of the GDP

Population comprises of different ethnicity which include white, blacks, Asians, Hispanic among others

Health expenditure is 17.9% of the GDP

Mortality rate is 21 deaths for every 100000 live birth

Christianity is the dominating religion (Indexmundi,  n.d.).


Has a population of about 15458332

Population growth rate 1.63%

Total dependency ratio is 57.6%

Has 20% total urban population

Average life expectancy 63.78 years

Official language Khmer

Literacy level for basic education is 73.9%

Education expenditure is 2.6% GDP (2010 statistics

The population comprises of three major ethnic groups that include Khmer, Chinese and Vietnamese

Health expenditure 5.7% GDP based on 2011 statistics

Morality rate is 250 deaths for every 100000 live birth

National religion Buddhists (Indexmundi, n.d.).


United States

GDP in 2013 was $ 16.72 trillion

GDP growth rate in 2013 was 1.6%

GDP per capita in 2013 was $52800

Gross national saving in 2013 was 13.5%

Population below poverty level in 2010 was 15.1%

Labor force in 2013 was 155.4 million

Rate of unemployment in 2013 was 7.3%

Budget revenue in 2013 was $2.849 trillion while expenditure was $3.517 trillion

Inflation rate in 2013 was 1.5% (Indexmundi, n.d.).


GDP in 2013 was $39.64 billion

GDP growth rate in 2013 was 7%

GDP per capita in 2013 was $2600

Gross national savings in 2013 was 9.6%

Population below poverty in 2012 was 20%

Labor force in 2011 was 7.9 million

Rate of unemployment in 2011 was 0%

Budget revenue in 2013 was $2.685 billion while expenditure was $3.1 billion

Rate of inflation in 2013 was 3.2% (Indexmundi, n.d.).

Peace And Stability

United States

The country has been stable for quite a while without major political conflicts: Among the witnessed internal conflicts include civil war between 1861 and 1865

Other conflicts include civil rights conflicts between minorities and whites this happened between 1954 to 1968.

Since then the country has been witnessing civil rights demonstrations but no major war

Have taken part in maintaining peace and order in a number of fighting nations that include Afghanistan, Iran, and Russia among others


The country has witness a number of political conflicts that have caused internal war

Sihanouk is overthrown by Lon Nol in 1970

Pol Pot overthrew Lon Nol most educated middle class  are tortured and killed in 1975

Hun Sen organized coup in 1997

2002-2004 political deadlock after disputed election

2012 boarder dispute with Thailand

2013 mass protest against election results and 2014 opposition protest camp as a result of disputing election (BBC, 2015)


United States

Presidential form of governance with president as the leader of the nation and governors as the leaders of the states

It’s a democratic nation with a congress, senate, and judicial and a constitution balance the law

Constitution is the supreme law of the United States

The government constitute of three branches that include the legislative with congress, house of representatives and senate, executive with president, cabinet and vice president and judicial with supreme court and other federal courts (USA, n.d.).

The country is constitutionally divided into 50 states which are divided into counties that are also divided into municipalities.

It has a multiple parties political system

It has three level of judiciary which include the supreme court, court of appeal and the district court

Elections are held after every 4 years with a limit of maximum of 2 terms (Iipdigital, n.d.).


Constitutional monarchy wherein the head of the government is the prime minister while the head  of the state is the Monarch.

Its democratic nation with a parliament to create legislations and a constitution to follow

The government has separate judicial, executive and legislative branches

The governmental power is demonstrated through the judiciary, royal government, senate, and the national assembly

The country is constitutionally divided into four municipalities and 24 provinces. Each province is sectioned into districts which are also subdivided into communes

The country has two political party

It also has two level of judiciary which include Supreme Council of the Magistracy and Supreme court

Elections are held after every 5 years  without term limit (Asiabiznews, 2014).


United States

Adopts western culture though with influence of other ethnicity such as Africans and Latinos

Uses American English as their national language though they enjoy unique culture characterized  by different social habits, dialects, arts, music, folklore and cuisine.

The country is highly diversified due to a huge number of immigrants and inherited a number of cultural aspects from British especially in the legal system.

Social classes are given great importance in the US which are defined based on the economic status, level of education, race, and religion

American culture may be diversified mostly based on individual race and ethnicity with some giving more importance to religious values while others swaying with change in the western culture

Give more importance to nuclear family than the entire extended family and mostly people live individual life


Adopts Buddhism and all its laws and teachings, though there are a few Muslims, and Christians .

Most individuals uses Khmer as their language

They observe society hierarchy and interpersonal relationship. They also have rank order in the monarchy

They mostly live a collective life either as a family, company or a group (Ldldproject,2005).

Greetings among them depends on age, hierarchy and relationship between people

They offer gift during the new years but they do not celebrate birthdays

They observe formal table manners in any family

Art is normally given much importance in sculpturing Buddhism figures (Indexmundi, n.d.).

Business Culture

United States

 Although there is hierarchy in business, they are not given much importance since free association can be used to eliminate hierarchy formalities 

 Time and agendas are highly observed in any business meeting

 Personal relation are never given any importance normal verbal greeting are extended.

 Handshake can also be given which must not be soft

 Contract are the only way to do business, mutual trust cannot be assured without a contract.

 They speak clearly when they do not agree with an idea and maybe give reasons for that 

 Individualism is emphasized even in business

 Contains loyalty to individual goals and normally use terms as “self sufficient”

 Truth omission is regarded as dishonesty

 Confrontation is considered as a healthy way to acquire feedback

 No is simply used to mean “NO”

 Used of actual and precise language in business communication

Regards disagreement as a means of personal expression and thus valued

Value the truth than spearing others feeling

Highly concerned about individual achievements (Ldldproject, 2005).


 Hierarchical culture is also observed in business where respect is offered based on one’s position in business

 Business meetings do not stick to agenda and schedule

 Friendliness is normally given more importance than business operations; business card can only be exchanged after friendly greetings and talks

 Soft handshakes are normally used to pass respectful greetings even in business meeting

 They base their relation on mutual trust and thus they do not give much importance to contracts

 They remain silent if they do not agree with an idea

 Humility and modesty are emphasized in their culture

 Normally talk as a group or on behave of a group using ‘we’(Asiabiznews, 2014).

 Always pledges for group loyalty  using terns such as “I belong “

 Truth omission is regarded as building harmony

 Confrontation is regarded as destructive and rude and thus undesirable

 No is used to substitutes other words as let ‘s see,, maybe or well

 Apply a lot of ambiguous words to pass a message

 Regards disagreement impolite and thus might verbalize yes though act contrary

 Value individuals feelings as compared to the truth

 Highly concerned about human associations and social harmony (Ldldproject, 2005).

Business Operations

United States

 Formal ways of solving disputes are applied either through litigation of mediation.

  Have always employed internationally accepted law to resolve disputes including disputes between a local citizen and international company or vice versa

 Foreign business need to register and to satisfy all legal requirements set fore foreign investors in the country. These rules varies based on the relation between the two countries, and the form of investment

 Have well established legal system to control both local and foreign investment in the country, with clear business operation limits and strategies


 Frequently apply traditional, informal ways of resolving disputes for instance elders, individuals commanding community, and villages respect.

 The country adopted an alternative dispute resolution and recognize international techniques of resolving issues through arbitration

 Foreign companies are registered with the three kinds of foreign business include subsidiary branch or representative office

 Insufficient legal structure in the country is blamed for hindering foreign investment in the country

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