The purpose of this paper is to explain the different types of organizational diagnosis models and elaborate on the best model to be used in Whole Foods Market Company. Organizational diagnosis encompasses evaluating the performances of a specific organization and coming up with measures of correcting the found problems or issues leading to its weaknesses or failures. The managers in charge of the diagnosis process come up with different models of collecting and analyzing vital information about the company, and designing interventions to solve the problems. In order for one to systematically review the entire system, the use of organizational models is advisable (Burton, 2011). An organizational model is the exemplification of how an organization works and provides a systematic way of collecting information, and categorizing it in a manner that can be easily understood by all members.
Force Field Analysis is an example of one of the models focusing on evaluating and managing of organizational problems. It identifies the driving and the restraining forces within an organization and explains on how the driving forces push for changes as the restraining forces, such as poor working conditions, act as obstacles to the changes. According to this model, in order to identify the existing problems in the organization, one must first identify the driving and restraining forces. There must be equilibrium between the two forces when defining the missions, policies and objectives needed to improve the performances in the organization (Johnson, 2015). The successful implementation of this model is achieved when there is a state of equilibrium between the two forces.
Leavitt’s model uses specific variables like the tasks in the organization, structures, technologies and human resources. The model explains that there must be interdependence in all the variables, and a change in one variable will have implications in all the other variables. For example, the introduction of new and efficient technologies will boost the morale of the employees which will in turn improve their productivity and overall performance of the organization. The main weakness of this model is that it is much easier to create underlying reports concerning the variables in the organization (Burton, 2011).
Likert System Analysis model discourses dimensions like inspiration, communication, collaboration, decision making, control, goal setting and performances. It describes the different types of management systems in an organization; these are the exploitative- authoritative group, the benevolent-authoritative, the consultative and the participative group (Johnson, 2015). The main goal of this model is to measure employee’s awareness of the organizational aspect within the organization and explain how the management and the non management team relate and which method works best to the benefit of both the employee and the company.
According to Bolman & Deal (2013), Open Systems theory explains how organizations are seen as social arrangements that rely on the surroundings in which they are established for the outcome of its products or services. For example, people working under poor working conditions will have high chances of performing poorly compared to those working in good environments that will have better performances. It provides room for repeated sequences of inputs, transformations, outputs and renewed inputs within an organization.
Weisbord’s Six Box model proposes six groups of administrative performances; these include commitments, order, associations, leaderships, compensations and supportive mechanisms. According to this model, the commitments of an organization are its desired goals and mission, the orders are the ways in which it is organized, associations are the ways in which the people interrelate, compensations are the intrinsic and extrinsic ways employees benefit from the organization, leaderships refers to how the management handles the non management group in the organization and finally supportive mechanisms refers to the arrangement, monitoring, and information systems that aim at helping the organization achieve the desired goals (Bolman & Deal, 2013). This model also explains how the differences between the informal and formal arrangements should be as little as possible, since the greater the differences, the less effective the organization becomes. It also addresses the impacts of external environment in the organization for example, external pressures from customers.
The Congruence model for Organizational Analysis is established on hypotheses that are evident in contemporary managerial problem-solving themes. According to this model, organizations are open societal systems within a given environment where change is inevitable. It assumes that certain behaviors occur at different levels like the group, individual or the whole system, creating rooms for interactions at different levels. It also elaborates that the needs and objectives of one component should be consistent with those of the other components. The systems components are the organizational culture, the tasks in the organization, formal organizational arrangements and the individuals in the organization (Burton, 2011). In order for one to know the status of the congruence, organizational diagnosis is conducted through the analysis of the different system components.
McKinsey 7S Framework is explained with the use of seven variables, which include the styles, staff, systems, strategy, structure, skills and finally collective ethics. The way in which the organization is planned and organized shows its structure, staff represents the human resource and personnel in the organization, strategy represents the ways of allocating the existing resources for optimum productivity, systems are procedures and processes followed in the organization, styles are the measures used by the managers in managing the organization, skills are the experiences and knowledge acquired by the staff and finally shared values are what is guiding the success of the company that is shared among all the members (Johnson,2015). This model argues that changing one of the variables cannot successfully create changes in an organization, but it must encompass the change to all the variables and must be interdependent.
High Performance Programming model evaluates the existing performances in an organization in order to ascertain ways of transforming it into a high performing system. It elaborates on variables like period, concentration, arrangement, transformation, controlling, organization, perception, inspiration, growth, good relations and governance. Another method is diagnosing individual and group behavior. It puts more emphasis on productivities such as structural performances and value of how the employees relate in their working environments. It exemplifies an open system perception with minimum limitations between the company and outside surroundings (Burton, 2011).
Burke-Litwin Causal model explores on variables like outside surroundings, tasks and approach, governance, administrative arrangement, corporate practices, classifications, duty necessities and specific skills, inspiration, and overall performance in the company (Johnson, 2015). It shows a clear distinction between organizational climate and culture, and transformational and transactional changing aspects within an organization.
Whole Foods Market is facing serious issues that are tagging down their sales. The first issue is competition from big competitors like Wal-Mart stores and Kroger Company. It has failed to outdo its competitors who are quick in adapting to the new technologies (Burton, 2011). The second issue is brand differentiation, for the longest period of time the company has been in the market, their brands have remained poor and hence attracting less audiences with the rising competition. Thirdly, the company has failed to grow location base, giving more room for its competitors to expand too many locations, this has reduced its popularity and the consumption of their products.
The best model to use in a given organization is the Congruence model. The secret behind the success of organizations lies behind the type of diagnosis model it uses to correct the existing problems and make necessary changes. This is done by understanding the causes of performances in the organization and how they relate to each other (Bolman & Deal, 2013). Congruence model uses the four basic elements to derive the performances in the organization; these are the tasks, people, structure and culture, and it has a rule that, the higher the congruence amongst these elements, the higher the performances. Through the analysis of each key element, there will be sufficient diagnosis of the organization and the planned goals achieved.
By understanding the tasks to be done in the company, it will be easier to know the areas needing more attention and the crucial processes in the organization. It also helps in identifying the required skills necessary for performing the tasks, the rewards accompanying the tasks, the technologies needed to be improved and the flow of work from one stage to the other (Burton, 2011). For example, is there a good relationship between the sales department and the corporate sector? Or are they being forced to sell what is not required in the market? Such questions will help in evaluating the performances of both the group and individual parties. By analyzing the people in the organization, it helps to identify the employees doing critical roles, the kind of interactions between all the stakeholders including the employees, the skills the people possess and ensuring that each person is assigned the right job they were trained and have sufficient knowledge and understandings of the assigned tasks. It is also important to consider the peoples preferences to rewards and the likes for career progressions. This is aimed at improving their knowledge and interests in what they are doing in the company which will add up to increased productivity to the whole organization.
By analyzing the organizational structure, it helps in identifying the systems and processes that lead to high performances; this includes how well the company is organized from the top to the lowest level of management. The organizational culture defines the performances since it shows the attitudes, beliefs and commitments of the people to their work, it should enable free and fair communications and treatments of all people in the organization (Bolman & Deal, 2013). The effectiveness of this model relies mainly on the interrelationships between the major elements in the organization and creation and maintenance of congruence throughout the year. It is therefore recommended that the Congruence model be used in the Whole Foods Market for it to remain competitive in the market and improve its performances.
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