Bone grafting is conducted surgical with the aim of replacing bones that are missing to prevent health risks that may be linked to complications that may occur in the fractured bones of the injured area. The bone fracture usually undergoes healing automatically when the fractures have minute space. The bones are usually sourced from the individual, bone grafts or chemically made bones, especially from hydroxyapatite. Bones grafts can be categorized as autologous, synthetic and allografts (Zimmermann & Moghaddam, 2011).
Bones in the body contain collagen, which is a protein. Bones are usually made strong by hydroxyapatite, phosphates and calcium salts. Bone grafts can be used in four ways to treat bone defects. The three ways that bones are grafted which include osteoconduction, osteoinduction and osteogenesis. Osteogenesis encompasses the formation of a new bone by molecules that are usually bone proteins, which enhance cells to have the capacity to form bones. Osteoconduction encompasses the physical effect where bones where the graft matrix makes a scaffold that enables new bone to be formed by the cells. Allografts are taken from the patient’s body. They are obtained from the hipbone by surgery. The bone is usually shaped to fit in the fracture (Finkermeier, 2002).