This section focuses on Citigroup, which is a LCFI (Large Complex Financial Institutions) according to US Federal Reserve. Like all other LCFIs with international operations, Citigroup presents a number of regulation-related difficulties to authorities. The difficulties are clear from the LCFIs’ substantial write-offs, recurrent legal settlements, regulation-related infractions as well as poor lasting performances of their share prices (Manuel, 2015). The subsidies afforded LCFIs like Citigroup create mean incentives, as well as marked distortions, in competitions between global financial markets. The distortions favor the LCFIs and adversely impacts on financial intermediaries, which are unsupported (Terraza & Razafitombo, 2013). There are concerns relating to whether Citigroup should be regulated using policies that focus on its form as an institution or its particular functions. The regulation of Citigroup by many agencies is seen as providing a fertile ground for conflicts between the agencies.
The regulation can be enhanced through several ways. First, there should be a particular, dedicated agency for regulating global LCFIs, including Citigroup, since they have a character that is dissimilar to that of functional specialists. Besides, the regulator is essential since the LCFIs pose marked risks to the worldwide financial system (Manuel, 2015). Second, the regulator should have particular national agencies helping it execute its mandate. The links between the agencies and the regulator should be seamless to ensure that the LCFIs are effectively coordinated nationally as well as globally. Besides, the links will stem the occurrence of regulatory arbitrage.
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