Causes of Throat Cancer at Cellular Organelle Level

The human cell is one of the critical components in the human body that forms the basis of life. The diseases that affect human beings can be traced to the impact it has on cells in the body. Severe cell infections or alteration like it occurs with cancer can cause diseases that can be hard to cure. Cancer is considered one such infection that has become one of the leading killer diseases in the world. According to Pecorino (2012) cancer is considered as a disease that originates from cells growth that is unregulated and which spreads from the primary site to other parts of the body. The author points that research has documented over 100 types of cancer and include throat cancer, lung cancer, neck cancer, skin cancer, and colorectal cancer among other types.  

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Throat cancer occurs in a multi-step process that leads to genetic alteration and metastasis. At the cellular level, the process starts through mutation and cell selection and increased proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. The initial step is the tumor initiation where the cells in the throat undergo genetic alteration resulting in proliferation of a single cell. Due to cell proliferation, an outgrowth of population of clonally derived tumor cells is formed. The tumors continue with growth within the tumor cells population through mutations causing cancer.

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            The cells in the human body reproduce through a process called mitosis that leads to production of identical cells. The process occurs through a controlled replication process that are typically in four stages that involves growth of the cells, synthesis and replication of DNA, growth in preparation of division, and finally the actual mitosis process. The process of cell growth and division into identical cells is controlled by the cell cycle gene called gene p53, also referred as the “guardian of the genome” (Mandinova & Lee, 2015).In addition, as cells divide and grow their reproduction and differentiation is controlled within the normal range through the density-dependent inhibition. The combination of the gene p53 and the density-dependent inhibition ensures cells division, reproduction rate, and differentiation is kept normal in the body and thus suppresses the formation of neoplasms. 

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            The throat cancer occurs due to cancerous tumors that occur in the cells that lines the throat. The discovery of throat cancer at an early stage can be critical in providing effective treatment. The abnormal growths that are attributed to tumors responsible for throat cancer can be treated in a number of ways. Early stage throat cancer can be treated through surgery, where the tumors are removed through specialized surgical process referred to as endoscopy. This will allow the elimination of the cancerous cells from the throat lining. Advanced stage throat cancer can be treated using a combination of radiation and chemotherapy.         

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Cancer remains one of the leading killer diseases that affect the cells in different parts of human body. Since the disease results from abnormal cell division, its treatment can be complex. Cancer can be benign or malignant, where the later is restricted to specific part of the body while malignant form spreads to other parts of the body. The malignant form of cancer is complex and can be difficult to treat. Although surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation have been developed in the treatment of cancer, they have not been effective methods. There remains the need to identify treatments that can possible reverse or regulate the production of cells that are responsible for various types of cancers.

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