Progressively, organizations are realizing the need to establish a justifiable balance between the contribution of an employee to the organization and the contribution of the organization to the employee. In principle, the employment of sound human resource management is thus essential in enhancing the performance of an organization through proper management of the employees’ interactions with the organization. Human resource management is considered to encapsulate all the activities that involve the administration of an organization encircling planning, recruitment, training and orientation, appraisal, remuneration, benefits and compensation, as well as motivation (Nde, 2010). Recruitment and selection forms an elemental phase of the human resource management. Recruitment involves the process of finding for the most apposite candidates that are willing to offer services to the organization. Selection deals with the assortment of particulars and details revolving around the candidates’ background with an aim to assess and choose suitable candidate to be taken up for employment (Aguinis, 2011). Below is a recapitulate of the recruitment and selection process.
When an organization endeavors to carry out a recruitment process, it is paramount that a job analysis is conducted. The job analysis involves the documenting of the job description and personal specifications. Job analysis is instrumental in establishing the information required in preparation of a job description that is vital during advertisement of vacant position (Nde, 2010). A job description involves the preparation of job requirement matrix that recapitulates the duties and prerequisites of the job. Below is the job requirement matrix for the position of Surgery Schedule Coordinator.
Fundamental to the human resource management is an effective recruitment process which when the best practices are employed precipitates considerable impact on the organizational performance hence leading to a more positive reputation of an organization. Conversely, ineffective recruitment processes brings about a wide spectrum of cost consequences such as lost business, declining employee morale, as well as high turnover in labor. The primary aim of recruitment activities is to magnetize suitable and sufficient candidates in applying for vacancies within an organization. Formulating adequate policies and strategies is a fundamental phase of the recruitment process. Studies have indicated that the employee is gradually being perceived as a part of the organization and thus labor is not only a considered as factor of production but also as part of business (Aguinis, 2011).
It is authoritative to note that the labor market dictates the approach an organization opts to take in conducting recruitment and selection. In principle, the labor market is considered to be the mechanism by which the human labor is purchased and disposed as a commodity as well as the means through which the demand for labor is commensurate with the labor supply. There are a number of recruitment strategies that are commonly used in a bid to attract job applicants some of which are advertisements in local media, use of recruitment agencies, corporate websites, promoting speculative applications, specialist journals, as well as the use of employee referral schemes. Following the ever-rising technological advances, internet recruitment has become an essential medium for the recruitment of employees either by the employer or search firms and recruitment agencies (Nde, 2010).
Keep & Jame (2010), reports that there has been a significant growth in the use of corporate websites as recruitment modules since the late 1990s. Internet recruitment has been seen as an effective mode of conducting recruitment owing to the fact that organizations have a spectrum of choices such as setting up recruitment websites, advertising job vacancies through specialist internet sites, as well as encouraging job applications via corporate websites. Subsequently, the use of internet recruitment has brought about attractive benefits to organizations including; recruitment costs reduction, contacting a wider array of applicants, reducing paperwork associated with recruitment, and use of technology in scanning applicants’ document to easily identify key selection criteria. In addition, internet recruitment enhances greater flexibility foe applicants through the matching of job-seeking dispositions of today’s labor market (Aguinis, 2011).
Another recruitment tool that is gaining popularity is employee referral schemes which refer to existing employees coming up with suggestions of potential candidates from their own circle to be considered for selection. It is suggested that organizations that are involved in continuous recruitments stand to benefit considerably from employee referral scheme method. However, notwithstanding the benefits of employee referral schemes there has been an upsurge in concerns that this technique brings about implications pertaining to equality issues as well as diversity outlook, and may be perceived to promote discrimination (Nde, 2010).
Selection Tools and Follow-up
Selection process is instrumental in establishing the category of applicant that qualify for the offered job following the recruitment process that highlights the labor with specific responsibility and skills prerequisite in supporting the organizational goals and objectives. In principle, the selection process is aimed at matching the candidates to the tasks and job prerequisites to ascertain that the successful applicant will be best suited to perform in the organization. In addition, the selection process endeavors to establish the efficiency of labor, as well as physical, social and economic aspects in which employees are expected to perform (Nde, 2010). An effective selection process involves the employment of adequate tools which include candidates screening and assessment, interviews, tests, as well as simulation. Additionally, reference checks are also carried out prior to presenting the offer to the successful candidates and follow-ups and contract signing follows after (Keep & Jame, 2010).
Screening is one of the techniques employed in the selection process whereby the process is an objective tool that calls for selectors to demonstrate clear and concise concepts pertaining to the competences and credentials of the candidates. Resumes and CVs can be used in the screening process in establishing the differences, although it is time-consuming. In addition, the use of psychometric tests aids selectors in screening suitable candidates while others have been reported to employ role plays or simulation techniques (Aguinis, 2011).
The use of interviews is also considered an effective selection technique in which detailed information about the employee are requested and this can be done through the use of questionnaires. Interviews can either be structured or unstructured. Structured interviews involve a list of carefully premeditated questions aimed at unearthing the key competencies of the candidate subject to the job position. The answers to the questions are then scored commensurate with an established scoring range. Similarly, situational interview which revolve around presenting a real-life situation to the applicant and they are expected to retort by expounding on the approach they would take in resolving the situation, may also be used. For the unstructured interviews, a form of discussion is conducted with the interviewer presenting a spectrum of random queries to the interviewee for answering in a discussion (Keep & Jame, 2010),.
Another selection tool is testing. This technique seeks to weigh the personality and the ability of the candidate through various means such as numeracy, vocabulary, spatial awareness among others. Personality test is instrumental in measuring the personal characteristics, attributes and values in establishing the individual’s disposition and the suitability to the job position (Aguinis, 2011).
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