Professional Service Organizations (PSOs) are found in diverse industries, all offering professional, knowledge-based, and customized services to customers (Bucher & Strauss, 1961; Cogan, 1955). The members of the PSOs stress on the significance of standardization and quality. Even then, they have challenges in standardizing the services they offer to clients. Different PSOs help standardize various aspects of given services. Generally, the standards they set can be viewed as being foundational or practice standards (Brante, 1988; MacIver, 1955).
The foundational standards commonly apply to how specific programs, projects, and portfolios should be managed in given professionals (Bucher & Strauss, 1961; Cogan, 1955). The practice standards typically relate to how specified risks, earned values, task scheduling regimes, competency developments, project configurations, and work breakdowns should be managed in given professions. Notably, ideally, PSOs formulate all their standards in consensus-based, as well as open, processes. The processes at times include the solicitation of public views on draft standards. The public is allowed to suggest changes to the draft standards as it deems appropriate (Brante, 1988; MacIver, 1955).
Some PSOs establish, as well as maintain, universal standards for their members. Such standards ensure that, globally, the members are consistent in how they execute given functions according to Merton 1958). Over time, the standards may be raised with regard to given practices. Notably, PSOs raise the standards in an effort to advancing the professions and professions constituting their memberships according to Bucher and Strauss (1961) and Cogan (1955).
Almost all PSOs have codes of ethics for their memberships. Notably, such codes are essentially universal standards to be adhered to by the PSOs’ members. Only their members can alter the codes, which establish their professional moral standards (Brante, 1988; MacIver, 1955). Another professional standard formulated by PSOs in consultation with their members is the set of benchmarks constituting given social policy statements. Such statements serve as particular professionals’ contract with the communities they serve to sustain high serve standards and values.